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Friday, September 28, 2012

A Netherlandish Carved Altarpiece c. 1510

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A Netherlandish Carved Altarpiece c. 1510

The oak altarpiece of about 1510 from Brussels in the Royal Ontario Museum is attributed to the Borman workshop. Similar to other altarpieces of the time, the corpus assumes the form of an inverted “T”. In the central compartment, there is a representation of the Nativity / the Adoration of the Shepherd. The left compartment features Presentation in the Temple, at the moment of Christ’s circumcision. On the right, we see an image of the Adoration of the Magi. Above the central scene, there is a Coronation of the Virgin. In the bottom compartment contains two prophets holding scrolls of the Holy Scriptures. The retable’s possible placement on the high altar, where the Eucharist is celebrated, explains the limitation of its subject matters. The carved altarpiece functions as an illustration of the central themes of the Mass, and aid for meditation and a suitable backdrop for the moment of consecration. The examination of the original position and appearance of the reredos provides insight to the ritual practice of the Mass, the religious sentiments and the creative process of the early sixteenth century.

The attention to details, the exotic garments and the twisting poses associate the piece with Jan Borman and his workshop in Brussels. The ROM retable is full of rich surface details. The exquisitely carved figure of the kneeling king in the foreground of the Adoration of the Magi has curvy hair, which the carver describes in fine details. The soldier standing near him whose back is toward the viewer shows the diamond-patterns of his garment. The clothing of the characters also demonstrates an interest in exoticism1. The hats of the three kings are very elaborately decorated with an impression of foreignness. The hat of the oldest king is placed in the central foreground as if the carver is eager to display his ability to realize such wonderful details to the viewer. A few figures in the foregrounds turn their back to us, which is a distinct element of Jan Borman the Elder. The shepherd on the right of the Nativity twists his body exaggeratedly with his back to us turning to his right to acknowledge the Child. He also gestures to the Baby in the centre with his left hand. The figure standing in the front on the extreme right of the Presentation duplicates the posture of the shepherd. Most of the figures in the foreground are sculpted in the round and on an individual block of wood, which demonstrate the characteristics of the Brussels workshops.

According to the images in contemporary paintings and pages from books of hours, carved altarpiece is usually placed behind the high altar. The most frequently quoted source of the location of the wooden reredos is Rogier van der Weyden’s painted altarpiece Seven Sacraments (fig.1). In the background of the central panel, a priest is shown in front of a sculpted retable, at the moment of consecration. The piece is located about two bays away from the very east end of the church. The building might be a pilgrimage church that has multiple chapels in the choir. People are shown walking around and behind the high altar. However, it is clear that the reredos is placed on the altar, upon which Mass is celebrated. Also, in a miniature depicting Philip the Good at Mass (fig. ), a carved retable in an inverted “T” shape is in front of the priest who is conducting a service. Two arches which suggest the space of two bays are shown behind the curtains that confine the space where the Mass takes place. The reredos also seems to have been installed on the high altar, which is placed right in front of the east end. The piece in ROM might have possibly been installed on an altar in a similar position.

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Retables appear to be closely connected with the ritual of the Mass, which commemorates the birth, the life and the death of Jesus Christ. Netherlandish carved altarpieces from Brussels and Antwerp usually consist of narratives from the Infancy of Christ, the Passion and the Life of the Virgin � the major themes of the Mass4. The narrative elements of the altarpiece prove further that the reredos plays an important role in the liturgical ceremony. The oak retable in ROM has a cycle of narratives that can be associated with the Incarnation of Christ, which is the central mystery of the Christian faith and is a typical subject for Netherlandish sculpted reredos. The Nativity is depicted in the central compartment of the ROM altarpiece. The scene of Jesus’s birth is emphasized by its central position and a higher elevation than the two scenes flanking it. In the moment of consecration, the priest would lift up the wafer facing the centre of the altarpiece as it is shown in the background of van den Weyden’s Seven Sacraments (fig. 4). The Child lying on the ground is located on the axis, a position approximately coincides with where the wafer may be upon the altar. The congregation would definitely relate the wafer to the Saviour who is represented in the form of flesh in the altarpiece. The wafer, which is transformed into the real flesh of Jesus when consecrated, is juxtaposed with the form of the Child in the altarpiece. The retable gives a visual account of what is said in the Mass therefore it is suitable to be the backdrop to the celebration of the Eucharist5.

The shape of the case of the retable also bares close relation to the consecration of the Host. The altarpiece in ROM assumes the form of an inverted “T” with an elevated centre. It is also seen in The Nordingra Passion altarpiece from Brussels (fig. ), the reredos in Seven Sacraments (fig. 4), and the one in Philip the Good at Mass (fig. ). The inverted “T” shape seems to be the typical form for the body of the Netherlandish carved reredos according to the surviving pieces. The elevation of the central section imitates the priest’s movement of consecration, when he lifts up the Host. In the early sixteenth century, the climax of the Mass is considered to be the Elevation of the Host instead of the reception of the mass, when the individual consume the wafer and drink the wine6. The shape of the retable emphasizes the most dramatic moment of the ceremony visually.

The carved reredos might also function as a visual attraction that draws the congregation’s attention to the altar. The services are still said in Latin in early sixteenth century before the reform. The laity who does not know Latin would just sit through the ceremony not understanding what the priest is saying. Thus, having a visual companion that matches the content of the Mass help the lay congregation to concentrate on and to partake in the spiritual experience 7. Art’s chief function in the late medieval period is to educate and inform the illiterate people and to enrich their meditation. The retable in ROM depicts the story of Jesus’s birth in the manger, His circumcision, and the Adoration of the Magi. These narrative scenes help the viewer to concentrate on the idea that God became flesh and provide many details for meditation. Moreover, the scenes of adoration of the Virgin, the shepherds, and the Magi invite the spectators to do the same � to worship the Christ.

The carved altarpiece might very possibly have been gilded in gold and polychromed, though no trace of the original paint can to be found in the piece any more now8. Polychromy is referred to as an indispensable part of Netherlandish sculpted retables in the contracts between artists and their patrons. The unpainted altarpieces are considered as “rough” and “bare”, in other words, unfinished. The piece in ROM is very likely one of the many wooden retables sold in the Pand market in Antwerp, where art works and other luxurious objects are displayed from 1460 to 1560. It is probably painted as it is in the case of the other uncommissioned ones that are made between 1400-1550. A polychromed piece is much more desirable than an unpainted one to the churchgoers in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, when the late medieval taste still prevails. The overall appearance of gold with primary colours such as red, blue, and white, makes altarpieces appear precious like jewels10. Abbot Suger, who is considered the patron of the first completely Gothic11 church, claims that beautiful and multicoloured gems can direct one’s meditation to the Divine and to the higher realms1.

Almost simultaneous with the development of altarpieces, private devotion becomes very popular in northern Europe, especially among the laity. Growing numbers of small devotional images in the forms of diptyches, triptychs and multitychs, and the popularity of books of hours indicate a strong desire to confront God directly. The main purpose of artworks in this period of time is to aid the viewer in his meditation that he may experience the Divine. Therefore, a gilded and painted altarpiece with brilliant colours, which suggests a sense of preciousness, is helpful in leading the congregation who sit facing the retable to contemplate God.

Futhermore, to have the retable gilded using gold leaves marks the holiness of the altar, upon which the ritual of the Eucharist is performed. Gold is suggested to be a material that symbolizes God. In Song of Songs, the Shulamite describes her Beloved, who stands for the Lord “His head is like the finest gold” (510). Furthermore, the retable being gilded in gold makes it appear in harmony with the other objects that are on the altar during the Mass, such as chalices, candlesticks, monstrance, which are made in gold also1.

The standardisation of iconography, subject and the overall arrangement of the figures suggest that the retable in ROM as well as many surviving Netherlandish carved altarpieces are made for the open market without commissions. With a few exceptions, all Brabantine carved reredos of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have an elevated centre, a similarity that is impossible to be overlooked14. Moreover, the subject matter restricts to only Infancy, Passion or the Life of the Virgin. The ROM retable shows the combination of the Infancy and the Life of the Virgin cycles. A Brussels altarpiece of 1510-15 depicting the Life of the Virgin (fig.5) has many similarities with the ROM piece. In both works, the Virgin sits on a throne in the middle; she is holding the Child, facing the viewer frontally. On her left kneels the oldest king; on her right another king dressed in exotic clothing. In the foreground, almost at the same spot lies the hat of the oldest king. However, there are obvious variations the king on the right hand side of the virgin appears fatter in the Life of the Virgin Altarpiece than the one in the ROM retable; there are more characters in the ROM piece than the other one. These differences might be the result of the styles of individual carvers, but the overall design of the two scenes is very similar. These two retable might even come from the same workshop.

In the early sixteenth century, carved altarpieces become luxury goods rapidly produced by ateliers in Brussels and Antwerp. To quicken the process of making wood retables, chores are divided among many sculptors, joiners, and painters15. At less two different sculptors participate in the creative process of the ROM reredos. One artist carves the four angels standing around the Virgin in the Nativity. He might be responsible also for the two angels standing on the columns flanking the corpus and the Virgin and Child statueon top of the piece. The figures sculpted by him are elongated and their garments are in swaying movement. The other sculptor demonstrates more skills in carving details and the figures he makes are more rounded and their clothing has beautiful patterns. He might be in charge of carving the kings in the Adoration of the Magi. A third artist makes the shepherd standing at the right foreground; he might have come from Antwerp because of the twisting forms he applies to the figure. The repetition of the same design and the division of labour speed up the production of the retables, which are much sought after in the market in Antwerp. Furthermore, using patterns from model books can make the process easier. The group of Virgin worshipping the Child with four angels appears to be a direct quote from Hugo van der Goes’s famous Portinari Altarpiece, 1475. In both cases, the Virgin’s figure seems larger than others; the Child is lying on the ground and the angles are smaller than the human beings around them. The painting might be copied widely in the late fifteenth century and becomes one of the models in Borman’s shop.

The oak altarpiece in ROM might have served as a backdrop for the celebration of Mass, a visual explanation of the mystery of the Incarnation for the laity, and an aid for meditation. The development of the reredos is a result of a desire to confront God directly through contemplating beautiful objects. The ROM retable’s conventional subject matters, similar design to other contemporary piece and its very typical shape suggest that it might have been produced for the open market instead of on commission.





Notes

1 Kim W. Woods, “Five Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces in England and the Brussels School of Carving c. 1470-150,” The Burlingtion Magazine 18 (16)788.

Ibid., 788.

The original location of the altarpiece in the fifteenth and sixteenth century is discussed by Woods and Jacobs in their essays in relation with van der Weyden’s Seven Sacrements.

4Kim W. Woods, “The Netherlandish Carved Altarpiece c. 1500 Type and Function” in The Altarpiece in the Renaissance, Ed. Peter Humfrey. (New York Cambridge University Press, 10), 86.



5 Lynn F. Jacobs, Early Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces, 180-1550 Medieval Tastes and Mass Marketing, (New York Cambridge University Press, 18), 6-.

6Woods, Altarpiece in the Renaissance, 8.

7Jacobs, Medieval Tastes, 64.

8 Gerard Brett, “A Reredos from the Workshop of Jan Borman at the Royal Ontario Museum of Archeology, Toronto, Canada.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 44 (184) 4.



Jacobs, Medieval Tastes, 84-5.

10Ibid, 4.

11Gothic here means an architectural taste that prefers airiness to weight and brightness to obscurity. A taste that esteems the colourful decoration over the Romanesque severity.

1 Linda Grant, Abbot Suger of Saint Denis Church and State in Early Twelfth-Century France (England Longman, 18), .



1 Jacobs, Medieval Tastes, 4.

14 Lynn F. Jacobs, “The Marketing and Standardization of South Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces Limits on the Role of the Patron,” Art Bulletin 71 (18)15.



15Ibid., 15.



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Thursday, September 27, 2012

how 2 do a tatti

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valuation

Reflecting upon the criteria selected for purposes of this investigation, overall experiment was in agreement with the hypothesis. The set of results obtained demonstrated a clear correlation. Existing scientific logic can be applied to explain any discrepancies, which is included in the conclusion. The experiment was relatively straight forward to carry out, in the sense that the method I used was well thought out and coherent. No complex technical equipment was used either and so I was familiar with everything I used.

Through looking at my set of results and the class’ average results I saw that the results should produce a relatively curved shape when the points were joined dot-to-dot, overall my results achieved this, this tells me my results are quite reliable.

The fact that I also used pieces of potato for each concentration and that the increases in length for each of the two pieces were quite similar suggests that the results are accurate.

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However, through looking at my results I can see that by comparing the % change for my 0.00M solution to the class average, my result is significantly higher i.e. nearly twice as big. This suggests that my result must have been anomalous for this quantity i.e. an error must have occurred. The reason for this could have been improper dilution of the solution made as for the concentration 0.00M the solution consisted of just distilled water. As a result the only reason for the anomalous result could have been human error with the measurement of the potato sample before putting it into the tuber or even after the practical was over, when I was measuring the new length.



Even though I say that my results were accurate and reliable, through looking at the graph I have drawn overleaf (of class results), you can see that there is a huge range of results, for example for the concentration of 0.4M, the values range from 0.00 to �8.0, this huge difference in ranges between the class is present on more or less all of the individual concentration results. This suggests that there was an error somewhere along the line, decreasing the accuracy of my results. If the range was small, this would mean that the points were close together and so everyone got the same results, however this was not true meaning that there were some errors.

Sources of Errors

1. The preparation of sucrose solutions.

. The sucrose was weighed using an electronic balance (one decimal place)

. The purity (gradation) of the sucrose

4. The associated moisture (water of crystallisation) of the sucrose

5. The 10ml pipette used accuracy 0.1ml

6. There was no way of measuring the molarities of the solutions

7. The uniformity in variety and the age of the potatoes used

8. Length of the potato were measured using a ruler (accuracy +/-1mm)

. The sharpness of the potato cutting instrument

Explanation for the large variations in the class results

The fact that different potatoes were used by the class also could be another reason as to why the range of results are so large. Each of the potatoes could have had a slightly differing water potential than the rest therefore more water molecules could have moved into or equally out of the potato sample for a particular concentration, this would vary the calculated % change, again giving inaccurate results.

How could my experiment be more accurate?

1. The potato segments should be measured using a micrometer.

. The experiment should be repeated using more than just two samples

. The sucrose used for solution (be graded by quality control)

4. The container should be covered to exclude air borne contamination

5. Ambient temperature and pressure recorded

6. The potato was randomly wiped using blotting paper

7. The experiment should be repeated with time as a variable

It is also possible that the measurements of the lengths of the potato samples may have been inaccurate (both before and after being submerged in the solution). The technique I used was just a standard ruler. This means the results were only accurate to the nearest millimetre. The use of this instrument also left the possibilities of human error. Even though I did repeat the measurement of each sample on two occasions to ensure accuracy, I cannot vouch upon the rest of the class doing the same. This could have been resolved via the use of a simple set of weighing scales, as there is no chance of human error and are accurate to three decimal places the nearest 0.000g (a huge amount more than the ruler) or still if we wanted to measure length a set of callipers could have been used (there is barely any chance of error with this).



In each of the sucrose concentrations that I created, I placed two potato samples. Now thinking about this, if I had time to repeat the experiment again I would only place one potato sample per sampling tube. There could have been an effect that the two potato samples together had that may have resulted in an increase or decrease in the % change. If the water potential of the solution was lower than the potatoes, the potatoes could have each given out more or less water molecules as they were as a pair. This again could mean there is an error in my results.

Another place where errors could have originated from was the fact that the potato samples had to be dabbed onto blotter paper to remove excess moisture before being measured. Some potato samples may have been dabbed too much and therefore had removed too much moisture (making the length smaller). This could have again given false lengths.

Now that I have looked at all the possible sources of errors, I feel the sources that effected my investigation the most were, firstly the likelihood that dilutions were improper. This is due to the fact that I had to use pipettes, which had a size of 10ml and were only accurate to the nearest o.1ml. This meant for each dilution I had to use for than one pipette full and so the errors built up. This meant the concentrations I though I made were not actually what I expected and so decreasing the accuracy of my results, as once the solution was made there is no way to tell what the molarity of a solution is. I would have much rather used a burette which is the most accurate piece of apparatus available at measuring solutions. Secondly, again the fact that I placed two potato samples in each sampling tube. There could have been an effect that the two potato samples together had that may have resulted in an increase or decrease in the % change. If the water potential of the solution was lower than the potatoes, the potatoes could have each given out more or less water molecules as they were as a pair. This again could mean there is an error in my results. Finally, there could have been skin left on the potato sample at certain sides. In my investigation I used 1 potato to ensure I carried out my fair testing regulations. As I made the final potato samples I got were closer to the edges. This meant there might have been a layer of skin on one side of the potato or even that the potato sample may have had a non uniform diameter. Due to a layer of skin, water molecules would have not been able to move into the plant cells or out as easily via the process of osmosis as there would be an additional layer for the water to pass through. This resulted in either an increase or decrease in what should have been the actual % change of length. I feel these were the errors that most effected my investigation.

I will also compare my results to a secondary source. Below is a copy of Marilyn’s data on the same experiment.

Sucrose Conc. M Initial length cm Final length cm Difference in length cm % Length change

0.00 .5 .65 +0.0 +8.0

0.10 .50 .65 +0.15 +4.0

0.5 .50 .60 +0.10 +.0

0.0 .65 .70 +0.05 +1.40

0.40 .50 .50 0.00 0.00

0.45 .50 .40 -0.10 -.0

0.50 .50 4.5 -0.15 -4.0

0.80 .40 .05 -0.5 -10.

1.00 .10 .70 -0.40 -1.



Overleaf I have drawn a graph of these sets of results and it is obviously clear that although the two graphs follow a general trend of a negative correlation, there are turning points at different part for both graphs. One other similarity the two experiments have is that the water potential is �110Kpa (the molarity for 0% change is 0.40M for both). However for my secondary data I have more readings and this is why there are these slight turning points that vary to that of my results, for instance in my secondary source readings were taken at molarities such as 0.5M, 0.45M ect. it is possible that my experiment would have also had these abrupt turns if I had taken readings at these molarities instead of keeping a constant distance of 0.10M between each concentration of sucrose solution.

However I can see that although the graph fits with my results and the class average results, if I were to take the individual class readings there would be a huge difference in results. This again points towards the fact that there were variations and errors. I know how the secondary source carried out the experiment as it came from a college technician, who gave us a plan for how the experiment was carried out. The plan was to ensure no other factors effected the final % change other than the water potentials of the solution and potato sample. I can see one error on the results (circled on graph) at 0.5M, this is because it is a very sharp and unexpected turn. Reasons for this error, I can only say could be down to human error.

Explanation for the non conforming results

The solution concentration could have been diluted wrongly, the potato lengths could have been measured inaccurately before or after the potato sample was placed in the sucrose solution. By looking at the graph for secondary data I can see that the points would fall in the range of the class results easily.

Reproducibility of results

If I had the possibility to improve or extend my investigation I would primarily use a more accurate method to create the appropriate dilutions, for instance I would have used a burette, which could hold the exact amount needed in one go, rather than in two. This would have enabled me to create more accurate dilutions. I would also place one potato sample per sampling tube as I don’t know if by placing two at a time I varied the final length of the samples. Using two may have meant less potato sample had to expel or consume more or less water to reach an equilibrium between the internal and external water potentials. Also, as explained before I would also have used electronic weighing scales to measure mass, instead of a ruler to measure length, as the weighing scales are far more accurate and would also leave no chance of human error. If the measurement of length was mandatory I would have felt more comfortable using callipers as there is a higher accuracy rating and less chance of error also. Finally, I would have liked to have used concentrations closely around the 0.40M concentration (the concentration that gave a 0% change in length) to see what the exact sucrose solution was that shared the same water potential as the potato, as the value of 0.40M is only accurate to the nearest millimetre, the % change for 0.M, 0.41M ect. could also be 0% to the nearest millimetre. I would have liked to use the following concentrations 0.M, 0.8M, 0.5M, 0.41M, 0.4M, and 0.45M. This would consequently give me a more accurate figure for the water potential of the potato. I would have also made each of the solutions separately so if an error was made in one solution, it would only affect the results for that concentration, rather than the results for all the concentrations.

Reliability, reproducibility and accuracy

Now that I have looked at the way in which I carried out my investigation and also compared it to secondary data, I feel my results are not as firm as I previously imagined them to be. The fact that the class ranges are so far apart illustrates that there were operator variations in results, decreasing both the reliability and accuracy of the results. Taking this into account, the results obtained I have acquired as a result of this investigation are only a suggestion of what should happen i.e. a decrease in validity. The investigation did work, in that my results matched the theoretical predication, but the degree of accuracy is not so great that if I repeated the investigation again, that the turning points in my practical would be the same again and again i.e. I couldn’t say with any conviction that the % change for any potato sample with a length of cm when put in a 0.40M solution would be 0.00% or equally the % change for a potato sample placed in 0.00M solution would be +15.0% or even close to that.



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ethics

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on ethics. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality ethics paper right on time.

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What are ethics? Everyone has a sense of what ethics are, but pinning it down in a clear definition is not easy. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines ethics as “a discipline dealing with good and evil and with moral duty.” It includes questions like “What is the right thing to do?” “Is lying ever okay?” “Is it better to do this or that?” There are two common systems of thought regarding ethics. One is absolutism, and the other is relativism.

Cultural relativism is the belief that right and wrong vary from one society to another and from one time to another. In practice, it is the belief that what is right for one person is not necessarily right for another person. The cultural relativist observes that some things that are considered wrong today in America, such as slavery, were not always considered wrong in America and are not always considered wrong in other societies today. In Arab countries, it is considered wrong for a woman to be out in public with her head uncovered, but elsewhere in the world it is acceptable and even the norm. From this they conceive that right and wrong must be relative, and that absolute right and wrong do not exist.

Absolutism, on the other hand, believes that right and wrong are based on a truth that doesn’t vary. The absolutist believes that what is right or wrong is always right or wrong whether or not a society recognizes it as such at the time. Absolutism is often founded in religious faith, believing that the truth of right and wrong comes from God, such as is found in the Ten Commandments. The absolutist views ethics much like the scientist views nature, that there is a truth out there waiting to be discovered and explained, and once explained everything else falls into place. For example, when an absolutist believes that life begins at conception, it becomes obvious to him or her that abortion is the taking of a human life and is, therefore, wrong.

These two opposing views can be seen clearly in American history.

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During the founding of America, absolutists clearly held sway. The Puritans had a clearly absolutist view stemming from their firm belief in the Bible. Many of the writers of the Constitution also firmly believed in an absolute standard for right and wrong. John Adams once wrote, “We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge or gallantry would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution is designed only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate for any other.” This view predominated in American society until fairly recently. There were several factors in the late 1800’s that precipitated a change. The realization that slavery is wrong despite its seeming acceptance in the Bible, the increase in communication due to the telephone, the transcontinental railroad, and improved postal service, the introduction of Darwinism, and even the introduction of Nietsche’s philosophy of existentialism that claimed “God is dead,” all contributed to the changing ethical climate of the time. In recent years, the predominant view has become one of cultural relativism. In American society today, it is considered unacceptable and intolerant to hold to absolutist views. Our society as a whole, tends to believe that it is wrong for a person to try to change the moral standards of someone else. All beliefs should be accepted as valid, although in trying to do so, the relativist becomes intolerant of absolutist views, which is an area where cultural relativism breaks down. The widespread propagation of anti-discrimination laws is another area that shows our society’s trend toward cultural relativism. Many of those protected by recent laws were not accepted or treated fairly in the recent past.

In conclusion, the two main ethical frameworks, absolutism and relativism, have both been observed in American society. Whether these changes are considered good or bad will depend, to a large degree, on the framework of the individual. Both absolutism and relativism have been around a long time, and neither one will be disappearing any time soon. Perhaps, the collision of these two viewpoints will cause people to think about the good points of each, and find a third alternative, a new and better common ground.



Please note that this sample paper on ethics is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on ethics, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on ethics will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER.

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Top Girls is the story of women, women in Britain in 18. Margaret Thatcher is Prime Minister. Ronald Reagan is President and all is right with the world. At least as long as you are on top. The playwright, Caryl Churchill, approaches the role of women in society at the end of the 0th century with a critical eye to what it takes to be successful and what we all have lost in the process. It is unapologetically both touching and angry.

Chris Honer’s Interpretation of Top Girls did the play justice, and whilst there were parts that might have needed more contrast and emphasis, I felt that the play was a good interpretation and that some of the themes and issues explored in the play are still relevant to women and men in society today. The play was done utilising a mix of both Brechtian and Stanislavskian elements. The characters were strong characters you could believe in, however the plot was short and episodic, and typical of Epic Theatre. In my personal opinion, I felt that Leah Muller, the actress playing both Lady Nijo and Angie, needed more of a contrast between the two characters. However, you could see in Sophie James, who played Isabella Bird, Joyce and Louise, the actual thought processes and the internalisation. Having said that, all of the actresses managed to create a distinction between the characters that they were playing, this was done in the way they used their body language to convey their thoughts and feelings to the audience, right the way down to the mannerisms and quirks of their individual characters.

I thought that set utilised the space in a efficient and well planned manner. The first scene used a revolve which whilst over-used in terms of revolving was effective as the dinner scene went on, and helped to convey the idea of drunkenness to the audience, whilst letting every member of the audience see the facial expressions of each of the actresses. The background for this scene looked to be a mural that involved stars and gods, which to me seemed to convey that Marlene was at the top. Behind the actual set itself was a very Brechtian Element of darkness, which gave the impression that the actors came from nowhere and went back into nowhere. Since this was an alienation effect to remind the audience that they are in a theatre watching a performance, it helped with the non-chronological order of the scenes in the play.

After the dinner scene, we saw the office, which had a massive attention to detail, from the coffee machine to the 18 wall planner on the wall. In all of the different places that the play takes part in the attention to detail was wonderful. In the office set there were levels that were utilised to show status in the office, with Marlene’s desk being on the top level. This set had no feminine touch, and was bleak and blank. It showed us how impersonal and how Marlene lived her life. She didn’t want family to interfere with her career and this set of an office showed us this and helped to make us believe that vision of hers. Between the scenes music from the 180’s, however since I was born in 185 I couldn’t recognise it, yet some members of the audience were “reliving their youth”, this once again was adding to the attention to detail for the play and helped to convey to the audience the time period of the play. For the set of the Back Yard and the interview office, it wasn’t realistic, which was another alienation effect utilised by the designer, Sarah Williamson, and the director, Chris Honer.

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All in all I felt that it was a good interpretation of a play, with some excelling acting performances, and a set that made you think what was going to happen next. The combination of the Stanislavskian and Brechtian elements further enhanced the play and helped us to imagine what it would be like in 18. As well as doing that it made us think about some of the political and moral issues that we can still apply in the year 00 as audience members.

Please note that this sample paper on REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER. is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER., we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER. will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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life

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The soil of an area provides the foundation for plant and animal development. Areas that have not yet developed plants tend to have poor, hard, or shallow soil. As plants begin to develop, soil tends to improve.

As soil conditions change, different communities of plants and other organisms may develop over time in a single area. This sequence of communities is called ecological succession. Succession generally follows one of two patterns. Succession is said to be primary if it occurs in a habitat that initially has no soil or organisms. An example of such a habitat is a lava field after a volcanic eruption. Succession is secondary if it occurs as a result of a disturbance. An example of such a disturbance is a forest fire that does not destroy the soil.

The plant species tend to succeed one another in patterns related to factors such as competition for soil and light. The pioneer plants, which develop first, must have the kinds of roots and other adaptations that allow them to live in the harsh conditions that exist early on. The improved soil that results from the growth of these plants then serves as home for plants that could not survive earlier. Eventually, a stable community, called climax community, will develop and remain unchanged unless conditions are disturbed significantly

The soil of an area provides the foundation for plant and animal development. Areas that have not yet developed plants tend to have poor, hard, or shallow soil. As plants begin to develop, soil tends to improve.

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As soil conditions change, different communities of plants and other organisms may develop over time in a single area. This sequence of communities is called ecological succession. Succession generally follows one of two patterns. Succession is said to be primary if it occurs in a habitat that initially has no soil or organisms. An example of such a habitat is a lava field after a volcanic eruption. Succession is secondary if it occurs as a result of a disturbance. An example of such a disturbance is a forest fire that does not destroy the soil.

The plant species tend to succeed one another in patterns related to factors such as competition for soil and light. The pioneer plants, which develop first, must have the kinds of roots and other adaptations that allow them to live in the harsh conditions that exist early on. The improved soil that results from the growth of these plants then serves as home for plants that could not survive earlier. Eventually, a stable community, called climax community, will develop and remain unchanged unless conditions are disturbed significantly

The soil of an area provides the foundation for plant and animal development. Areas that have not yet developed plants tend to have poor, hard, or shallow soil. As plants begin to develop, soil tends to improve.

As soil conditions change, different communities of plants and other organisms may develop over time in a single area. This sequence of communities is called ecological succession. Succession generally follows one of two patterns. Succession is said to be primary if it occurs in a habitat that initially has no soil or organisms. An example of such a habitat is a lava field after a volcanic eruption. Succession is secondary if it occurs as a result of a disturbance. An example of such a disturbance is a forest fire that does not destroy the soil.

The plant species tend to succeed one another in patterns related to factors such as competition for soil and light. The pioneer plants, which develop first, must have the kinds of roots and other adaptations that allow them to live in the harsh conditions that exist early on. The improved soil that results from the growth of these plants then serves as home for plants that could not survive earlier. Eventually, a stable community, called climax community, will develop and remain unchanged unless conditions are disturbed significantly



Please note that this sample paper on life is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on life, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on life will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, September 24, 2012

a neice of my own

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A Niece of my own

I must have been about 10 or 11 years old when my mother got the news she was going to be a FIRST TIME GRANDMOTHER. My brother, Robert and his girlfriend, Kristen, had just found out they were expecting a baby. Big Deal, I thought. What was all the commotion about, just a baby, all they do is whine, and cry, need to be fed, need to be changed, and constantly looked after. My mother went through all the normal grandmother stages, going absolutely crazy buying everything in sight that had to do with babies. My father however, took a little bit longer to kick into the whole “grandpa groove”, but as soon as it kicked in my father took my (then 15 yr. old) sister, Marlena to J.C. Penny’s , handed her his credit card, and said “Here you go, whatever you think the baby needs, you buy it”. Needless to say Kayla was completely spoiled, as any first grandchild would be. I just sat back in amazement and thought, “All this “hubbub” over a baby?”

Well the months passed and my brother and his girlfriend ended up moving in with my mom, my step dad and me. I couldn’t believe how big Kristen had gotten. I didn’t know babies got that big. As she got further and further along in her pregnancy, I kind of stayed away. I didn’t want anything to do with that whole baby mess.

Well the day came when little Miss Kayla Lee DiGregorio was born. I wasn’t there. None of our family was, but, of course my brother got it all on tape for us. When I got home from school my mom sat me down to watch my niece’s birth. At this young age only one word sprung into my mind……..ADOPTION!!!!! I can’t honestly say watching that tape of the birth mortified me to no end, all of the screaming and everything else that comes along with child birth was too much for me.

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The day then came when Kristen came home from the hospital with Kayla. From the moment I saw her I was entranced. She was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen. So tiny and innocent, helpless even, being held in her mother’s arms. It was an instant fascination for me. From that moment on I wanted to be a part of EVERYTHING that had to do with Kayla, feeding, changing, rocking to sleep and especially PLAY TIME!!!! Oh I loved to play with her. The way she looked at everything, seeing it for the first time, it utterly amazed me! And I would sit there and wonder if I did the same thing and my mom would assure me that, yes I did. I tried to remember, or even imagine what it would be like to look at everything and see it for the first time. Although I could not remember, I could imagine. I found myself a little bit jealous of Kayla for being able to do this.

I remember the day I came home and my brother, Kristen and Kayla were gone. I was so sad. I had lost my new “toy” basically. I know that is a bad way of classifying a baby, but that is how she became to me, my favorite past time. My brother and Kristen had found their own little apartment about 15 miles from where my mom’s house, and so I saw her less and less. Time went past, my brother and Kristen broke up and went their separate ways but they kept touch for Kayla’s sake and for visitation. My brother had gotten married and Kristen had found a boyfriend. The next time I got to see Kayla was on her 1st birthday. She had grown so much and had that dark brown hair and those dark brown eyes just like my brother. She was his pride and joy, a true daddy’s girl from the start. Kayla was his world, utterly and completely.

The last time I saw Kayla was at her 1st birthday party. After that things got pretty bad with my brother and Kristen. Kristen wouldn’t let my brother see Kayla. This effected our whole family. She was the first grandbaby after all. It would be more years before my brother would see his daughter, and even then she had no idea who he was. When I was younger I didn’t know the complete impact this had on my family, most of all my brother. He tried to be strong for everyone, but how can one be strong with their heart soul, their entire world is gone?

Kayla turned 1 this past May.

This matter, though it might not seem like it could have taught me anything, has taught me a great deal. Family is the most important thing. And the bond between parents and children is eternal, and can never be broken. I am hoping that this “story” has a happy ending. I would love nothing more than to see my niece again. Now that I am older I know what an impact one small child’s birth had on my life. It made me see things in a totally different way. And I didn’t realize that Kayla was the reason for that change until I wrote this essay. So in a way, she is still teaching me and making me realize things. Such a big thing for such a little girl to do.



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Saturday, September 8, 2012

The American Dream

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The play The American dream consists of five characters;

Grandma, Mommy, Daddy, The Young Man and Mrs. Barker.

These characters are a representation of abstract ideas

or principles. This play is a simple story which

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consists of an allegory or moral lesson. The moral of

this story is to reveal the substitution of artificial

for real values in our society through the exchange of

abstract concepts by the characters. This play is about

a family in which the realities of life are expressed

through values that are a fabricated substitute of

current values. A controlling and sadistic

disciplinarian, the character of the mother plays a

role that is reprimanding and violent. It begins with

the Mommy and Daddy in which the Mother seems to always

be distracted or upset because of the actions of others

that do not appeal to her. Daddy is kept under a tight

reign and therefore loses his sense of masculinity. He

is viewed as a negative individual and presence.

Therefore, Daddy is the source in which punishment is

displayed. Incidentally, Mommy and Daddy had adopted a

child bumble twenty years ago in which Mommy had

traumatized. Mrs. Barker provided Bumble to the

family. Throughout the play the adoption agencys (Bye

Bye Adoption Service) representative, Mrs Barker, who

they had requested to visit, remaind totally oblivious

of the purpose of her visit although she is aquainted of

her shared history with the family, she becomes the

description of the responsible American housewife.

Grandma, who becomes the commentator of the play is a

scream! She enters with gifts that wrapped very neatly.

These boxes have a significant meaning. The boxes

portray the contents of the American dream. Grandmas

brilliant wit contains some dazzling, if not exactly

unbiased, observations on the treatment of, expectations

from, and inner reality of, the elderly. She comes off

as the most intelligent person in the play, and the one

we identify with the most-even if her metaphysical

capacities for hiding objects, forgetting who her

strumpet daughter is, and desiring with spiritual

enthusiasm, the flesh of the young who may or may not be

her own are not necessarily everyones abstract concept

of satisfactions successful pursuit. Grandma becomes

the embodiment of meaning. Alas, The Young Man arrives

at the door. Grandma swoons over his handsome and agile

nature, yet, he reveals he is not complete despite all

he posesses. The Young Man IS The American Dream (within

Grandmas realm) who has come to replace her. In

essence, the Young Man assumes that identify for us (the

American people) only because Grandma gives him that

symbolic interpretation. Grandma has the Young Man take

the boxes outside, which signifies the replacement of

artificial or translucent values. Yet, the ending of

Grandmas character and identity is promising in an

extreme way. Although she leaves with the boxes, she

does not leave the theater. She actually moves to front

stage in which she speaks to the audience in the end.

The final words she relays wrap up the optimistic idea

she conveys. Well, I guess that just about wraps it

up. I mean, for better or worse, this is a comedy, and I

dont think wed better go any further. No, definitely

not. So, lets leave things as they are right now. . . .

while everybodys happy . . . while everybodys got what

he wants . . . or everybodys got what he thinks he

wants. Good night, dears. This phrase consists of the

revolutionary principles of this country that we havent

lived up to yet and hope to fulfil someday. The American

Dream is another of Albees many commentaries on our

society. Albee saw that in every one of us there exists

an ideal, the American dream. While this dream is

different for us all, Albee felt that all of us simply

expect our American dream to come true. This play

examines the anarchy that can result from the

realization that life just doesnt work the way we all

imagine it can. Albees goal is to make us all more

aware of the way we think, so that we may alter it to be

more correct and fulfilled.

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Friday, September 7, 2012

stuff

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Drugs In Sports

When athletes use drugs In many schools athletes are required to sign a contract in order to play sports. The contracts include of many rules and regulations that prohibit activities that will jeopardize the athletes performance. The use of drugs and alcohol are strictly forbidden. Vandalism and other actions that would result in any type of illegal happenings is also banned. The main problem with the contracts is that the students dont always obey them. Many athletes will still go out and party and drink and smoke and get into other activities that will harm their minds and bodies. Stimulants are drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and produce an increase in alertness and activity. They include caffeine, cocaine, and the amphetamines. The amphetamines are composed of three closely related drugs that stimulate the central nervous system and promote a feeling of alertness and an increase in speech and general physical activity. Some people take these drugs under medical supervision to control their appetite, but many of these drugs are used at parties to get high. Overuse and abuse have been associated with all of the stimulant drugs, but risks are the greatest with the amphetamines and cocaine. Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain and often induce sleep. Narcotics include opium and drugs derived from opium, such as morphine, codeine, and heroin. Narcotics also include certain synthetic chemicals that have a morphine-like action, such as methadone. Most of these drugs will leave a lasting effect for more then one day. Like a hangover from alcohol, these drugs will make you extremely tired or even sick the next day. Drugs are prohibited by athletic departments because they alter your performance. If an athlete uses one of these drugs they can have lasting effect on them sometime during a game or at practice. All drugs are illegal, and by athletes using them they set a bad example. Many younger students look up to the star athletes in a school and if they use drugs that is not a good impression to make. Schools do have punishments for athletes caught violating the contract but most of the time they arent harsh enough. Drugs are a very serious problem in all students lives, but if athletesuse them they can have a even worse effect. They could even jeopardize possible scholarships that an athlete could achieve. Drugs in any shape or form have soo much of a serious effect of the body that noone should even want to do them and if they do theyre only wasting their own lives away.





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