-->

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library Trust and prophylactics?

Sandra Jones, Manager, Research and Analysis Branch, Parliamentary Library, Parliament Buildings, Wellington, New Zealand.

Phone 64 4 471 1 Fax 64 4 471 61

E-mail sandra.jones@parliament.govt.nz

live paper help



The views expressed are purely the author’s and may not reflect the view of the Parliamentary Library or Parliamentary Service.

Abstract

Knowledge management in a library, even a specialist one such as a Parliamentary Library, can conjure up images of one large catalogue, listing the complete collection and managed by librarians mediating the information into a politically acceptable form. As ever, the truth is more complex. There are about fifteen different collections within the New Zealand Parliamentary Library. Only some parts are catalogued. Access to collections in other parts of New Zealand and across the world means that the information sources available to the 10 Members of the New Zealand Parliament and their staff are therefore vast. The key to the translation of this information lies in the heads of librarians and analysts who can turn this information into ‘MP relevant’ form i.e. knowledge useful for the political process. The paper addresses six questions regarding knowledge management in this political context and suggests some ways in which these processes are already working in New Zealand to ensure the best ‘fit’ of services for MPs and their staff.

Introduction

To a librarian, knowledge management may be the equivalent of whistling in the dark, a hopeful sign that the overwhelming amount of information coming their way can be “managed” � catalogued, not catalogued, thrown out, put into electronic form, and then dealt with. In consultancy terms, knowledge management has been defined as a system of information resources which promote more efficient and effective working. This definition assumes a paradigm of business where efficient and effective working is both measurable and measured. Not so in Parliament (what does an efficient democracy look like?) or the Library which serves a major part of its information needs. So, for the moment, I shall define it as a process of translating information into resources which serve Parliament in its day to day and longer term needs.

Also at the start, note the difference between knowledge and information � many learned articles have been produced on the differences between them � for the purposes of this paper knowledge is defined as information that is in a form that can change something or somebody, or allows that change process to be considered. It gives history, context and meaning. In carrying out its duties, the Parliamentary Library must produce the knowledge � and then trust that it will not be manipulated by the political process. At the same time, a healthy scepticism about politics demands a prophylactic, risk averse approach to the handling of such knowledge, and the interaction between the Library and its clients.



Six questions

Knowledge management (KM) in a Parliamentary setting covers a range of issues � the use of knowledge in a democratic process, efficiency and effectiveness given the necessary split between Parliament and the Executive, and the perhaps less necessary split between various branches of the Parliamentary Service, the impact of budgetary constraints and resource allocation decisions. The division of Parliamentary agencies and the Executive, the blurring of these boundaries over the past few years, who generates and utilises the knowledge, whose knowledge paradigm has credibility (who is listened to and who ignored) all have their place in consideration of the issues in a political environment. While not attempting to encompass all aspects of the debate, I want to address a series of questions which are relevant to the provision of information from a Parliamentary Library to Parliamentarians, their staff and (often forgotten) the political research units which serve them.

The six questions are as follows

1. Is Parliament getting the information it needs to carry out its duties as efficiently and effectively as possible?

. How can and should technology influence the access to and availability of information?

. What counts as knowledge and not just speculation?

4. What and who is the knowledge generated by the Parliamentary Library for?

5. Are we structured as a Library as well as we could be?

6. Who owns the information, and who pays?

I do not attempt to give definitive answers, but to add to the debate. The approach is discursive, rather than analytical.

Question 1. Is Parliament getting the information it needs to carry out its duties as efficiently and effectively as possible?

What does Parliament need to fulfil its obligations? Presumably, information on which to base its legislative decision making, and to meet its accountabilities to voters. The information can be just that � statistics, analysed data from various sources � or can be turned into knowledge through deeper research and contextualiseing results. Looking at what the Parliamentary Library actually produces , it appears that Parliament needs

· Personalised and confidential responses to questions from MPs and their staff

· Electronic portals to key subject areas � pushing information relevant to MPs onto their desktop.

· An overview of each Bill introduced into the House and reported back from Select Committees

· Research papers varying from short, electronic only I-briefs ( pages maximum) to Background Papers � our latest on climate change over 100 pages

· Media monitoring � in a limited way

(These outputs are very similar across western Parliamentary democracies generally, so it’s not just New Zealand which thinks this is what MPs need.)

The Library attempts at all times to personalise the service � our own research into MPs needs has told us that each MP has specific preferences for the information wanted, how they process it (if at all), and how they want information delivered. Feedback shows that the individual, speedy and confidential response is the most highly regarded service the Library performs.

We also keep a watching brief on issues as they develop � MPs who are opinion leaders ask individual questions which can often lead to questions in the House, media releases and ‘issues of the day’. Information supplied by the Library as answers to questions can later become the basis for updating an electronic subject portal, or a short I-brief, available to all. It could be argued that this ‘democratisation process’, the spreading of knowledge, is one of the key, although often unnoticed, services that the Library provides .

While some MPs are major users of the Library, and utilise the information gathered from specific questions to develop their parties’ policies � the free good of research allows them to spend in other areas � others rarely if ever ask questions or use other library services. Maori MPs are also noticeable by their absence from many user statistics. There is much work still to do in matching our services with individual needs.

One area of research work that is developing rapidly in New Zealand’s Multi Member Proportional voting (MMP) environment is the greater role of Select Committees. This more prominent role was freely predicted at the time of the first MMP election in 16, but has taken time to develop. Select Committees have major information needs. Their analysis of draft legislation, and their increasingly proactive role in instigating their own inquiries � cannabis, tertiary education, organic agriculture are a few of the most recent - has put a huge research workload onto Select Committee staff. Research requirements for Select Committees, while they may not be addressed directly by Library staff, will imply further work for the Library, given the collection resource and experience within the Library. (The average tenure of Select Committee clerks is now down to 14 months).

So, to return to the question, this is what we think they need. What though, do MPs really want? This is where the nature of oppositional politics makes itself felt. Want is about discrediting the government (if in opposition),

“ I want the electoral roll for Wellington Central” - (to discredit the Minister apparently residing at two different addresses and owning four houses).

Want is about looking good, keeping up with the story of the day � or hour � having information that noone else has. Knowledge in a political environment is therefore less about objective, factual information than about timing and scarcity value.

In a political environment, we need to be very aware that knowledge is created through received paradigms, often competing. We in the Library also have our own beliefs, values, stories, and ‘received wisdom’, not all of which is still relevant or even true. Paradigms also shift, often confusingly fast, especially in the area of national economic performance, one of the key subject areas for MPs’ questions. How we can translate ‘objective information’ through a political paradigm which speaks directly to MPs needs, while still preserving our reputation for an apolitical stance, is a key issue in developing our approach to research.

We need to be able to understand not only their information needs, but how this information is used � turned into knowledge � and then anticipate this process, and put it into context.

The ‘whole picture’ is often not apparent, especially at the time the issue is ‘hot’. MPs in this environment often exist on a meagre diet of fragments of information, corridor exchanges, and what as been called a ‘cottage industry of miscellany’ produced through debatable and unfocused research (Not the Library’s!). There is therefore a place for a cooler look at an issue, a research paper on a topic that hit the headlines but is now relegated to the inside pages. (Whether it is then read is another matter � a paradox between what MPs want, and what they need for their decision making through legislative processes).

Most of the Research and Analysis Branch’s work is focussed on economic issues and the statistical information around education, health, social policy and crime. To that extent, Parliamentarians are well serviced. However, we probably know more about possums than the family (Possum control Background Note 00/)!, and no, we haven’t done a research paper on family issues, although specific topics, such as migration, youth suicide and welfare benefits all took the family as a starting point.

So our clients get what they want, usually. What they probably need is better social policy information, hopefully no longer subject to the vagaries of government interference � such as the hapless researcher who used the term ‘poverty’ in his research in Muldoon’s time , or the attempts at qualitative social research during the 10s. Also, a better understanding of constitutional issues and the political cycle; our Background Note on the New Zealand constitution is still a winner, despite being around for nearly three years now.

After all this matching of MPs needs and wants to Library services, let us not get carried away in thinking that our research might drive the political process � short time horizons and a lack of understanding of much contextual information, plus values and beliefs drive this as clearly as ever (issues such as the cannabis and hemp inquiries, superannuation and the ‘brain drain’ being cases in point.) The best we can do is to build and maintain the trust of MPs that our research replies and papers are well analysed, are as objective as possible, and that we guard against the taint of political bias. The rest is up to them.

Question How can and should technology influence the access to and availability of information?

The Library is currently putting much of its resource into developing subject portals, and other electronic access to information, including commercial databases, mostly from the USA. In addition, the Internet is becoming one of the key information databases for MPs and librarians alike. The message is very much “search here before asking us a question”. The proliferation of information sources may be a factor in the decline in questions being asked of the Library � but not in the way guessed at. We had assumed that the more difficult questions, which would take longer to answer, would become the norm. Not so. MPs who asked for particular documents continue to do so. Those who had asked the more analytical questions on statistical and economic information continue to use the Library as their policy development resource. What has happened is in the middle ground, where political research units in particular, are asking for information not available on the

Internet, or a variety of aspects of a particular issue is requested from overseas journals.

The plethora of technologies, and their rapidly changing nature, has led to problems which are only recently being acknowledged. We cutback our daily newspaper ordering, given the services - originally free - of such electronic access services as Stuff and Newsroom . Now Stuff will be ‘pay as you go’., and their archives are hardly wonderful. Infotrac has access to over ,000 serials for us, but they are overwhelmingly US in provenance, there is only full text access to some of them and you can’t see where they sat on the page of the original journal. However, the ease of access to this particular database may well tempt a harassed librarian with a 1pm deadline not to search further for more local commentary or more relevant analysis of the issue.

Technical problems abound with the increasing reliance on rapidly evolving technology. The oversize floppy disk with no PC drive available means that some electronic storage media may now be unreadable. Microfilm tapes may no longer fit the current spoolers, librarians can spend all day in front of a PC not using the collection, especially those items in the lower basements. Who knows how to use microfilm readers � how do you even switch them on? A recent power outage left people at a loss - how to work without electronic resources? Meanwhile, the older parts of the collection continue to deteriorate, making it even less likely that anyone would attempt to take the books off the shelves, let alone use them to search for historical context.

The digital divide is not just about those with access to electronic resources being better able to take part in society. MPs are overwhelmingly paper and people people. Many of them use their computers only for email, for keeping in touch with people. While we may be able to serve their needs using electronic means, and increasingly they will be able to this for themselves, the technology must not be allowed to become the message. We need to be aware of the limitations to the information we (and they) can access by electronic means. There are people around Parliament with more relevant information in their heads than could ever be found on the most expensive database, or the best Internet search engine. I will come back to this point, but for the moment, beware of technology! Time in front of a computer may more usefully be spent browsing the stacks or talking round the water cooler.

Question What counts as knowledge and not just speculation?

In a political environment, credibility is often gained by who said it. In the same way, the Parliamentary Library is frequently cited in Hansard and in Select Committee as a shorthand for ‘reliable and objective’ information. There are some more notorious MPs who can arrive at the wildest conclusions from the small pieces of information gleaned from us � and issue it as a Press release. We have few defences in this case, but most parties are careful in their attribution to the Library.

The authority of the Library is its best prophylactic, and we must ensure that ‘safe km’ practices are practised in order to guarantee that protection. These include written quality control procedures that are understood and adhered to, a culture of questioning and checking information before accepting its validity, and developing a culture of knowledge sharing that rewards the sharer, and not just the user of that knowledge. The process of sharing knowledge also flushes out the speculative assertion from the facts, an extremely useful process in a political environment.

Question 4 What and who is the knowledge generated by the Parliamentary Library for?

This may seem a strange question. Our services are specifically for Parliamentarians, although our International collection of documents from such institutions as the United Nations and the World Bank are also available to members of the public.

But Parliamentarians use the services in different ways which can raise some eyebrows � questions which start “We’re developing policy on xxx � please give us analysis on the subject in a form that we can use to formulate the policy” Or “we’re not getting officials to give us the information we need � can you help us?” We may be straying into the area of contestable advice, which we have never been keen to enter, seeing ourselves traditionally as objective deliverers of information rather than knowledge disseminators, or decision influencers.

But as the world becomes more complex, and the sheer weight of available information doubles every few months, the need for advice and guidance, based on knowledge, and not just information, will grow. The Library through its research is already providing this knowledge base, and there is no reason to expect that the need will diminish. In fact, since the Christine Rankin case, (where a Departmental Chief Executive took the State Services Commissioner, her employer, to the Employment Court), this has become more noticeable as a trend.

Our Prime Minister recently stated as a result of this case, that while officials would still be expected to give free and frank advice to their Ministers, it would from now on be in a “more formal setting” . There appears to be a growing gap in the provision of advice that is trusted, especially from government officials. It is an area which the Library is aware of, but is careful to protect itself from any hint of ‘advice giving’ other than contextualiseing the information provided. A definite need for prophylactics in this type of environment, especially now we are giving oral briefings to MPs where we are asked “well, what do you think?”

The most used and valued aspect of the Library is its answers to individual questions. These are dealt with on a confidential basis, but are also recorded on a reference database. Similarly, the statistical information analysed for a particular question is kept on a series of spreadsheets, now numbering in the hundreds. From time to time, this information is updated, ‘recycled’ and issued as a research paper to all MPs. This is seen as a reasonable method of efficiently using the information gleaned for one person for a wider audience. Most topics so far used in this way are ‘old faithfuls’ like student loans and crime statistics. The personalised service has in effect become ‘democratised’ by its provision to all.

Coming into an election year also poses the question of who is it for � or perhaps, why is it needed? While our colleagues in the UK Parliamentary Libraries shut down their services in the weeks leading up to an election, in New Zealand we contribute information to parties busily putting together an election strategy, and next year (an election year) we are developing new Electorate Profiles � a service with current electorate MPs specifically in mind. Whether this gives them an unfair advantage over other candidates is moot � but we also hope to be able to put the Profiles on the Internet, so a levelling process should mean that the information is available to all candidates in time for the run up to next year’s election.

Our research also serves a wider audience. The appearance of research papers including Bills Digests on the Web in the next few months signals that we believe our work serves electorates, and the interested voter, as well as MPs and their staff. We are working with the Office of the Clerk to better integrate our research with their Select Committee process, again signalling a closer ‘fit’ between the Library and other Parliamentary agencies. We have wider horizons than the 10 MPs in the chamber.

Question 5 Given all the above, are we structured as well as we could be?

Last year, the Library was restructured for the first time for many years � the process was difficult, as all restructurings are, with the added problem of an organisation unused to change. The aim was to move the focus of the Library from the collection, and its internal clients, to our external clients (MPs and their staff) and to develop new, in particular electronic, services for them. At the same time, the research side of the library was given a higher profile, getting its own manager for the first time.

We are becoming generally more client focussed, although the physical distance of the Library from the rest of Parliament is still a major barrier. The shift of resources away from hard copy to electronic resources, with the cancellation of many tens of journal subscriptions over the past 1 months has been difficult. The fact that the journals have been rarely used still does not lessen the feeling of loss when the subscription comes to an end. It is difficult to know whether they were rarely used because they were not known about, or whether they were genuinely useless to the Parliamentary process. The catalogue of serials was tricky to navigate, (especially for a non-librarian). There is no central repository of this info � it’s often in individual’s heads. While we can therefore ask colleagues where things are, it is easy to overlook some of the straightforward information sharing processes which we could use instead � documented systems, written descriptions of where to access particular parts of the collection, and who to go to for information on a particular subject, a filing system and shared drive that is used by everyone.

In this way, the formal structures of the Parliamentary Library would become less relevant, especially in the move to ‘cross-Library’ projects. This will put pressure on the ‘library culture’ with its rules based approach to the provision of information towards a freer, more client centred culture where new ways of interacting can be tried and tested.

Question 6 Who owns and pays for the information?

This is not just a question of copyright, despite the large copyright notices on each photocopier. (Our copyright law differs from that in Australia and means, for example, that we are constrained by law in our dissemination of press cuttings, one of our most requested services).

While the Library owns the information generated, and a copyright notice appears on each research paper, research and analysis is seen as a free good by most clients. One of the smaller political parties frankly admitted they used the Library as their research unit so they could spend their research dollars on expanding their Web pages. While we have to cut back on serials to pay for electronic developments, we are becoming of necessity more canny in expanding resources and services without expanding the budget.

There is a growing feeling within the Library that it is cutting to the bone its collection services, but is still able to maintain its ‘motherhood and apple pie’ image with its clients. How can this paradox be? Are we working smarter, or are our clients’ expectations very low? Do they not know us very well? If so, as we get to know them better through the client management programme, our rating level may well fall. Such are the vagaries of political life. There may well be a shift in MPs perception of the Library as an institution (motherhood) to individuals who are delivering the service (the equivalent of ‘ones mother’ with all her quirks and human failings). The institution is wonderful. One’s mother probably less so.

The idea of user pays has not gained much leverage in the Library, and with the advent of Internet access, it is even less likely to be an issue. Taxpayer funds will continue to be our only income for the foreseeable future. However, as we work increasingly closely with other agencies, such as the Office of the Clerk, access to and paying for information and knowledge resources will surely become an issue. At the same time, there may be efficiencies which can be made as we work across boundaries within the Parliamentary environment.

Knowledge management in context � the challenges in a political environment

Essentially Parliament is a people based environment. Knowledge as a resource still rests primarily in people’s heads. Good knowledge management would look to me like experienced and trusting researchers working closely with their clients, in Select Committees. While proficient in electronic accessing of material, researchers would need the back up of other staff with good knowledge of the collection as a whole, including the historical volumes. The researchers would be the ‘forward scouts’ who, through working directly with MPs, would fully understand the needs and processes of the Parliamentary environment. The culture of the Library would ensure the free flow of information and knowledge across both researchers and collections specialists.

The Library building would be the base for librarians and researchers who really understand the collection � all of it, not just the electronic databases and the Internet, and can give not only current hot news from Stuff, but can delve into the history of the issue from the (paper) archives. Perhaps there need to be as many historians as librarians?

Knowledge needs to include the context. While MPs may ask for a snappy answer to a question, they (and the Library!) may also need the protection of the implications of this answer. If they want to know the number of teenage single mothers in Pororua, they not only need to have the figure but also the answer to “compared to what?” � national figures, last ten years, other mothers, other jurisdictions? They may also need to know whether other MPs have used this information in the past � from the Hansard record � or whether a Select Committee has produced a report on the same topic.

Library staff also need protection given the closer links with clients. Research is not immune from the political interference. The closure in 18 of the first social sciences research bureau prevented publication of information that contradicted received wisdom of the first Labour government, about the welfare of dairy farmers . The rise and fall of the Public Health Commission and the NZ Planning Council act as reminders that independent research needs to be carefully guarded.

We cannot be complacent, not only of the role of the Library, but how easily confidence in its services can be lost, and how political issues need to be taken into account, while guarding against over enthusiasm. The rise of ‘green’ issues, following the election of seven Green Party MPs, is a case in point. While enthusiastically researching new areas of political debate, such as ethical investment of Government funds, or growing hemp, we need to guard against assuming that some of these issues will form part of mainstream policy development. (the minor parties ask over 0% of reference enquiries). Good knowledge management can differentiate between knowledge which is valuable over time (good ‘shelf life’ for research papers, for example) and which is valuable only in the moment.

The nature and sources of information are changing and the public sector is less a monopoly provider of information to Parliament. There is now a wide availability of tools and acknowledgement of ‘spin’ stories, posing as information. A good example of this is the ACT (a minority, right wing) party whose Web pages are probably at the forefront of political technology, stating that it wanted to become “the political Web portal for all New Zealanders” . Its pages extol the virtues of freer trade (is this possible in NZ?), education vouchers, right wing US think tanks, and other assorted ideological standpoints, interspersed with opinions on issues of the day.

While user friendliness democratises knowledge by ensuring its easy flow, at the same time there is a weariness generally in New Zealand with the huge volume of information, more soft news and less analysis and contextualiseing of information together with a growing cynicism about the political process. There are therefore some risks in using the wide variety of sources available � and a greater need for cool analysis, with Library staff able to differentiate between fact and opinion.

Library staff are not immune from the engulfing wave of information.

The plethora of sources and time constraints can lead to a problem solving approach rather than challenging paradigms and providing context. Short time frames � the “I need it now” request, limits the proper management of knowledge. While there have been efforts in the Library to harness the results of answering queries through the use of a questions/answers database, use of this has gone down from 80% of questions and answers being put on the database to around 0% in the 18 months since it was set up. Lack of time is given as the key reason, although there may also be a lack of acknowledgement that this recording of information is a great storehouse of knowledge for future use.

KM is not formally accounted for the purchase agreement is primarily about counting research reports and answers to questions � about 170 and 14,000 respectively in 000/1. We may appear to measure our work, manage our knowledge, by counting things. A review of reporting and monitoring processes to focus on these keys aspects of our work is ongoing.

Poor standards of behaviour from MPs, and the ‘dirt digging’ approach to information gathering can lead to cynicism in library staff having to do research which they know will be a weapon for political and personal abuse. There can also be a poor standard of analysis from the recipients � we did a piece of work for an MP who immediately put out a Press release stating the complete ineffectiveness of a trade agreement � without taking into account the downturn in world markets at the time.

These problems are not just with MPs and library staff. The technology gatekeepers within Parliament have a lot to answer for also � understanding little about business processes, they can be oblivious to the fact that the technology is there to serve the process, and not for itself. There are the concomitant problems of quickly outdated technology also � lost records, broken data series and information trails, often due to storage of electronic records rather than paper based files. (This is a common problem, not just within the Parliamentary Service).

And finally, there is poor recognition of the Maori environment for the development of much research. There is a noticeable lack of use of the library by Maori MPs � we have much to catch up on here, in providing as excellent a service to Maori as we do to their colleagues. One way in which this is happening currently is by recruiting Maori librarians who can work directly with the Maori Select Committee, or Maori caucus, to elucidate their information needs.

All is not lost! The Parliamentary Library has some major advantages

· Historical tradition � we are unlikely � although we need the prophylactic approach here - to lose the library

· We are known for authoritative research, from senior and experienced researchers and librarians

· Our analysis is comprehensive, as objective as we can make it, and we stand by our work (sign it off individually in all circumstances)

· We are prepared to experiment � we’ll try new ideas and are flexible to tailor our services

· We are collaborative � we do share information, albeit informally.

· We have good neighbours in Australia with excellent information services relevant to our own

Conclusion

KM practices rely on good information, accurate contextualisation, an appreciation of the world view of the recipients of the knowledge, and a level of trust which means that a risk averse approach within the Library becomes less necessary over time.

These practices depend on the trust of staff for each other’s information resources and values, the sharing of information whenever possible, and the opportunities to do so. There is a pivotal role here for the experienced librarian and analyst, with their understanding not only of the formal Parliamentary processes, but also of the shifting sands of the political world. The political arena is governed by norms which are the very antithesis of good knowledge management.

Having nurtured good practice within the Parliamentary Library, we will still need a prophylactic approach as we venture outside its environs, in a fairly alien culture for most library staff, where knowledge is closely guarded, shared with noone, traded, or used as a weapon. Out there, we need all the protection we can get. Perhaps the last question should be, how do we get good knowledge management within the political system? The answer to that one, like miracles, takes a little longer.





Please note that this sample paper on Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Knowledge management and the Parliamentary Library will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Monday, August 27, 2012

no frills airline market

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on no frills airline market. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality no frills airline market paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in no frills airline market, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your no frills airline market paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Section 1

Introduction to the low-cost � no frills airline industry

Since the unprecedented, tragic events, of September 11th some of its profound consequences are coming to light. As events have unfolded it has been thought inevitable that the airline industry would suffer heavily, stocks have been devalued and ticket prices are at all time lows. News headlines such as ‘The unpalatable truth’ have considered the dire straits of the industry. The flag carriers (national airlines) have certainly been forced to retrench, cutting the number of short haul European hops where costs are too high. Sabena, Belgiums national airline and one of the oldest in the world has gone out of business. Swiss Air has had similar liquidity problems and has had to be bailed out by the Swiss government. Even now they are not running a full service. With many of the G7 economies in recession is this the way of things to come?

Low-cost carriers however, have for the most part averted many problems that could be associated with consumer confidence, and have remained profitable.

livepaperhelp.com



Europes low cost start-ups, such as easyJet, Ryanair and Go, are also flying high. On October th, easyJet announced an 8% rise in pre-tax profits in the year to the end of September…After a brief post-September 11th dip the airline, based at Luton, now says that seat sales are back to normal.”

The low cost carriers have been so profitable that they have been looking to expand. Over the last year they have snapped up lucrative flight slots from their more expensive rivals on short hauls, as the industry has been progressively liberalised. easyJet and their main rival RyanAir are taking away much of the business from the big airlines in Europe. RyanAir, for example, has a stock market capitalisation bigger than that of British Airways , showing the enthusiasm of investors for the lost-cost airline model.

This report will look sequentially at four important angles of the airline industry, from a marketing perspective, which should allow us some insight into the low-cost airline industry. These comprise the nature and of competition in the market and how competitive advantage is sought; an Industry analysis; a customer analysis; and finally a section detailing how PEST changes might affect the market over the next few years. The PEST analysis will focus heavily on the technological aspects, since these represent some of the most important issues that easyJet can have an immediate impact upon.

Section

The nature and extent of competition in the market and how competitive advantage is sought

On the whole the airline industry is a service industry. Airlines are primarily concerned with customer service, and look to add value to the customers experience at different stages in the value chain. Aerlingus, for example, is a full service airline that charges premium prices for the high levels of service they provide; by comparison easyJet positions itself at the other end of the scale. Herein we are primarily concerned with customer service, and Value added throughout the process. Some may argue that this should not be so in the case of easyJet, since it is a ‘no frills � low cost’ airline. However, Stelios the founder of the airline, understands that they have to meet and exceed customer satisfaction �or expectations. He is quoted as saying

“If you create the right expectations and you meet and exceed those expectations, then you will have happy customers,”

The implication of this for strategy is that you either, provide a level of service which is insurmountable, or you manage customer expectations downward and then surpass them, thus surprising the customer. easyJet follows the later alternative by providing very cheap flights that are billed as ‘no frills’ , but ensuring that its basic logistics work very well. For instance all of the planes are all brand new and the departure record is second to none



Please note that this sample paper on no frills airline market is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on no frills airline market, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on no frills airline market will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Analysis of Characters

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Analysis of Characters. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Analysis of Characters paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Analysis of Characters, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Analysis of Characters paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Elizabeth Bennet - The second daughter in the Bennet family, and the most intelligent and quick-witted, Elizabeth is the protagonist of Pride and Prejudice and one of the most well known female characters in English literature. Her admirable qualities are numerous¡ªshe is lovely, clever, and, in a novel defined by dialogue, she converses as brilliantly as anyone. Her honesty, virtue, and lively wit enable her to rise above the nonsense and bad behavior that pervade her class-bound and often spiteful society. Nevertheless, her sharp tongue and tendency to make hasty judgments often lead her astray; Pride and Prejudice is essentially the story of how she (and her true love, Darcy) overcome all obstacles¡ªincluding their own personal failings¡ªto find romantic happiness. Elizabeth must not only cope with a hopeless mother, a distant father, two badly behaved younger siblings, and several snobbish, antagonizing females, she must also overcome her own mistaken impressions of Darcy, which initially lead her to reject his proposals of marriage. Her charms are sufficient to keep him interested, fortunately, while she navigates familial and social turmoil. As she gradually comes to recognize the nobility of Darcys character, she realizes the error of her initial prejudice against him.

Fitzwilliam Darcy - The son of a wealthy, well-established family and the master of the great estate of Pemberley, Darcy is Elizabeths male counterpart. The narrator relates Elizabeths point of view of events more often than Darcys, so Elizabeth often seems a more sympathetic figure. The reader eventually realizes, however, that Darcy is her ideal match. Intelligent and forthright, he too has a tendency to judge too hastily and harshly, and his high birth and wealth make him overly proud and overly conscious of his social status. Indeed, his haughtiness makes him initially bungle his courtship. When he proposes to her, for instance, he dwells more on how unsuitable a match she is than on her charms, beauty, or anything else complimentary. Her rejection of his advances builds a kind of humility in him. Darcy demonstrates his continued devotion to Elizabeth, in spite of his distaste for her low connections, when he rescues Lydia and the entire Bennet family from disgrace, and when he goes against the wishes of his haughty aunt, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, by continuing to pursue Elizabeth. Darcy proves himself worthy of Elizabeth, and she ends up repenting her earlier, overly harsh judgment of him.

Jane Bennet/Charles Bingley - Elizabeths beautiful elder sister and Darcys wealthy best friend, Jane and Bingley engage in a courtship that occupies a central place in the novel. They first meet at the ball in Meryton and enjoy an immediate mutual attraction. They are spoken of as a potential couple throughout the book, long before anyone imagines that Darcy and Elizabeth might marry. Despite their centrality to the narrative, they are vague characters, sketched by Austen rather than carefully drawn. Indeed, they are so similar in nature and behavior that they can be described together both are cheerful, friendly, and good-natured, always ready to think the best of others; they lack entirely the prickly egotism of Elizabeth and Darcy. Janes gentle spirit serves as a foil for her sisters fiery, contentious nature, while Bingleys eager friendliness contrasts with Darcys stiff pride. Their principal characteristics are goodwill and compatibility, and the contrast of their romance with that of Darcy and Elizabeth is remarkable. Jane and Bingley exhibit to the reader true love unhampered by either pride or prejudice, though in their simple goodness, they also demonstrate that such a love is mildly dull.

Mr. Bennet - Mr. Bennet is the patriarch of the Bennet household¡ªthe husband of Mrs. Bennet and the father of Jane, Elizabeth, Lydia, Kitty, and Mary. He is a man driven to exasperation by his ridiculous wife and difficult daughters. He reacts by withdrawing from his family and assuming a detached attitude punctuated by bursts of sarcastic humor. He is closest to Elizabeth because they are the two most intelligent Bennets. Initially, his dry wit and self- possession in the face of his wifes hysteria make him a sympathetic figure, but, though he remains likable throughout, the reader gradually loses respect for him as it becomes clear that the price of his detachment is considerable. Detached from his family, he is a weak father and, at critical moments, fails his family. In particular, his foolish indulgence of Lydias immature behavior nearly leads to general disgrace when she elopes with Wickham. Further, upon her disappearance, he proves largely ineffective. It is left to Mr. Gardiner and Darcy to track Lydia down and rectify the situation. Ultimately, Mr. Bennet would rather withdraw from the world than cope with it.

livepaperhelp.com



Mrs. Bennet - Mrs. Bennet is a miraculously tiresome character. Noisy and foolish, she is a woman consumed by the desire to see her daughters married and seems to care for nothing else in the world. Ironically, her single-minded pursuit of this goal tends to backfire, as her lack of social graces alienates the very people (Darcy and Bingley) whom she tries desperately to attract. Austen uses her continually to highlight the necessity of marriage for young women. Mrs. Bennet also serves as a middle-class counterpoint to such upper-class snobs as Lady Catherine and Miss Bingley, demonstrating that foolishness can be found at every level of society. In the end, however, Mrs. Bennet proves such an unattractive figure, lacking redeeming characteristics of any kind, that some readers have accused Austen of unfairness in portraying her¡ªas if Austen, like Mr. Bennet, took perverse pleasure in poking fun at a woman already scorned as a result of her ill breeding.

Bingley was by no means deficient, but Darcy was clever. He was at the same time haughty, reserved, and fastidious, and his manners, though well bred, were not inviting. In that respect his friend had greatly the advantage. Bingley was sure of being liked wherever he appeared; Darcy was continually giving offence.

The manner in which they spoke of the Meryton assembly was sufficiently characteristic. Bingley had never met with pleasanter people or prettier girls in his life; every body had been most kind and attentive to him, there had been no formality, no stiffness; he had soon felt acquainted with all the room; and as to Miss Bennet, he could not conceive an angel more beautiful. Darcy, on the contrary, had seen a collection of people in whom there was little beauty and no fashion, for none of whom he had felt the smallest interest, and from none received either attention or pleasure. Miss Bennet he acknowledged to be pretty, but she smiled too much.

Pride, observed Mary, who piqued herself upon the solidity of her reflections, is a very common failing I believe. By all that I have ever read, I am convinced that it is very common indeed, that human nature is particularly prone to it, and that there are very few of us who do not cherish a feeling of self-complacency on the score of some quality or other, real or imaginary. Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.

Fitzwilliam Darcy - The son of a wealthy, well-established family and the master of the great estate of Pemberley, Darcy is Elizabeths male counterpart. The narrator relates Elizabeths point of view of events more often than Darcys, so Elizabeth often seems a more sympathetic figure. The reader eventually realizes, however, that Darcy is her ideal match. Intelligent and forthright, he too has a tendency to judge too hastily and harshly, and his high birth and wealth make him overly proud and overly conscious of his social status. Indeed, his haughtiness makes him initially bungle his courtship. When he proposes to her, for instance, he dwells more on how unsuitable a match she is than on her charms, beauty, or anything else complimentary. Her rejection of his advances builds a kind of humility in him. Darcy demonstrates his continued devotion to Elizabeth, in spite of his distaste for her low connections, when he rescues Lydia and the entire Bennet family from disgrace, and when he goes against the wishes of his haughty aunt, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, by continuing to pursue Elizabeth. Darcy proves himself worthy of Elizabeth, and she ends up repenting her earlier, overly harsh judgment of him.

Jane Bennet/Charles Bingley - Elizabeths beautiful elder sister and Darcys wealthy best friend, Jane and Bingley engage in a courtship that occupies a central place in the novel. They first meet at the ball in Meryton and enjoy an immediate mutual attraction. They are spoken of as a potential couple throughout the book, long before anyone imagines that Darcy and Elizabeth might marry. Despite their centrality to the narrative, they are vague characters, sketched by Austen rather than carefully drawn. Indeed, they are so similar in nature and behavior that they can be described together both are cheerful, friendly, and good-natured, always ready to think the best of others; they lack entirely the prickly egotism of Elizabeth and Darcy. Janes gentle spirit serves as a foil for her sisters fiery, contentious nature, while Bingleys eager friendliness contrasts with Darcys stiff pride. Their principal characteristics are goodwill and compatibility, and the contrast of their romance with that of Darcy and Elizabeth is remarkable. Jane and Bingley exhibit to the reader true love unhampered by either pride or prejudice, though in their simple goodness, they also demonstrate that such a love is mildly dull.

Mr. Bennet - Mr. Bennet is the patriarch of the Bennet household¡ªthe husband of Mrs. Bennet and the father of Jane, Elizabeth, Lydia, Kitty, and Mary. He is a man driven to exasperation by his ridiculous wife and difficult daughters. He reacts by withdrawing from his family and assuming a detached attitude punctuated by bursts of sarcastic humor. He is closest to Elizabeth because they are the two most intelligent Bennets. Initially, his dry wit and self- possession in the face of his wifes hysteria make him a sympathetic figure, but, though he remains likable throughout, the reader gradually loses respect for him as it becomes clear that the price of his detachment is considerable. Detached from his family, he is a weak father and, at critical moments, fails his family. In particular, his foolish indulgence of Lydias immature behavior nearly leads to general disgrace when she elopes with Wickham. Further, upon her disappearance, he proves largely ineffective. It is left to Mr. Gardiner and Darcy to track Lydia down and rectify the situation. Ultimately, Mr. Bennet would rather withdraw from the world than cope with it.

Mrs. Bennet - Mrs. Bennet is a miraculously tiresome character. Noisy and foolish, she is a woman consumed by the desire to see her daughters married and seems to care for nothing else in the world. Ironically, her single-minded pursuit of this goal tends to backfire, as her lack of social graces alienates the very people (Darcy and Bingley) whom she tries desperately to attract. Austen uses her continually to highlight the necessity of marriage for young women. Mrs. Bennet also serves as a middle-class counterpoint to such upper-class snobs as Lady Catherine and Miss Bingley, demonstrating that foolishness can be found at every level of society. In the end, however, Mrs. Bennet proves such an unattractive figure, lacking redeeming characteristics of any kind, that some readers have accused Austen of unfairness in portraying her¡ªas if Austen, like Mr. Bennet, took perverse pleasure in poking fun at a woman already scorned as a result of her ill breeding.

Bingley was by no means deficient, but Darcy was clever. He was at the same time haughty, reserved, and fastidious, and his manners, though well bred, were not inviting. In that respect his friend had greatly the advantage. Bingley was sure of being liked wherever he appeared; Darcy was continually giving offence.

The manner in which they spoke of the Meryton assembly was sufficiently characteristic. Bingley had never met with pleasanter people or prettier girls in his life; every body had been most kind and attentive to him, there had been no formality, no stiffness; he had soon felt acquainted with all the room; and as to Miss Bennet, he could not conceive an angel more beautiful. Darcy, on the contrary, had seen a collection of people in whom there was little beauty and no fashion, for none of whom he had felt the smallest interest, and from none received either attention or pleasure. Miss Bennet he acknowledged to be pretty, but she smiled too much.

Pride, observed Mary, who piqued herself upon the solidity of her reflections, is a very common failing I believe. By all that I have ever read, I am convinced that it is very common indeed, that human nature is particularly prone to it, and that there are very few of us who do not cherish a feeling of self-complacency on the score of some quality or other, real or imaginary. Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.

Fitzwilliam Darcy - The son of a wealthy, well-established family and the master of the great estate of Pemberley, Darcy is Elizabeths male counterpart. The narrator relates Elizabeths point of view of events more often than Darcys, so Elizabeth often seems a more sympathetic figure. The reader eventually realizes, however, that Darcy is her ideal match. Intelligent and forthright, he too has a tendency to judge too hastily and harshly, and his high birth and wealth make him overly proud and overly conscious of his social status. Indeed, his haughtiness makes him initially bungle his courtship. When he proposes to her, for instance, he dwells more on how unsuitable a match she is than on her charms, beauty, or anything else complimentary. Her rejection of his advances builds a kind of humility in him. Darcy demonstrates his continued devotion to Elizabeth, in spite of his distaste for her low connections, when he rescues Lydia and the entire Bennet family from disgrace, and when he goes against the wishes of his haughty aunt, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, by continuing to pursue Elizabeth. Darcy proves himself worthy of Elizabeth, and she ends up repenting her earlier, overly harsh judgment of him.

Jane Bennet/Charles Bingley - Elizabeths beautiful elder sister and Darcys wealthy best friend, Jane and Bingley engage in a courtship that occupies a central place in the novel. They first meet at the ball in Meryton and enjoy an immediate mutual attraction. They are spoken of as a potential couple throughout the book, long before anyone imagines that Darcy and Elizabeth might marry. Despite their centrality to the narrative, they are vague characters, sketched by Austen rather than carefully drawn. Indeed, they are so similar in nature and behavior that they can be described together both are cheerful, friendly, and good-natured, always ready to think the best of others; they lack entirely the prickly egotism of Elizabeth and Darcy. Janes gentle spirit serves as a foil for her sisters fiery, contentious nature, while Bingleys eager friendliness contrasts with Darcys stiff pride. Their principal characteristics are goodwill and compatibility, and the contrast of their romance with that of Darcy and Elizabeth is remarkable. Jane and Bingley exhibit to the reader true love unhampered by either pride or prejudice, though in their simple goodness, they also demonstrate that such a love is mildly dull.

Mr. Bennet - Mr. Bennet is the patriarch of the Bennet household¡ªthe husband of Mrs. Bennet and the father of Jane, Elizabeth, Lydia, Kitty, and Mary. He is a man driven to exasperation by his ridiculous wife and difficult daughters. He reacts by withdrawing from his family and assuming a detached attitude punctuated by bursts of sarcastic humor. He is closest to Elizabeth because they are the two most intelligent Bennets. Initially, his dry wit and self- possession in the face of his wifes hysteria make him a sympathetic figure, but, though he remains likable throughout, the reader gradually loses respect for him as it becomes clear that the price of his detachment is considerable. Detached from his family, he is a weak father and, at critical moments, fails his family. In particular, his foolish indulgence of Lydias immature behavior nearly leads to general disgrace when she elopes with Wickham. Further, upon her disappearance, he proves largely ineffective. It is left to Mr. Gardiner and Darcy to track Lydia down and rectify the situation. Ultimately, Mr. Bennet would rather withdraw from the world than cope with it.

Mrs. Bennet - Mrs. Bennet is a miraculously tiresome character. Noisy and foolish, she is a woman consumed by the desire to see her daughters married and seems to care for nothing else in the world. Ironically, her single-minded pursuit of this goal tends to backfire, as her lack of social graces alienates the very people (Darcy and Bingley) whom she tries desperately to attract. Austen uses her continually to highlight the necessity of marriage for young women. Mrs. Bennet also serves as a middle-class counterpoint to such upper-class snobs as Lady Catherine and Miss Bingley, demonstrating that foolishness can be found at every level of society. In the end, however, Mrs. Bennet proves such an unattractive figure, lacking redeeming characteristics of any kind, that some readers have accused Austen of unfairness in portraying her¡ªas if Austen, like Mr. Bennet, took perverse pleasure in poking fun at a woman already scorned as a result of her ill breeding.

Bingley was by no means deficient, but Darcy was clever. He was at the same time haughty, reserved, and fastidious, and his manners, though well bred, were not inviting. In that respect his friend had greatly the advantage. Bingley was sure of being liked wherever he appeared; Darcy was continually giving offence.

The manner in which they spoke of the Meryton assembly was sufficiently characteristic. Bingley had never met with pleasanter people or prettier girls in his life; every body had been most kind and attentive to him, there had been no formality, no stiffness; he had soon felt acquainted with all the room; and as to Miss Bennet, he could not conceive an angel more beautiful. Darcy, on the contrary, had seen a collection of people in whom there was little beauty and no fashion, for none of whom he had felt the smallest interest, and from none received either attention or pleasure. Miss Bennet he acknowledged to be pretty, but she smiled too much.

Pride, observed Mary, who piqued herself upon the solidity of her reflections, is a very common failing I believe. By all that I have ever read, I am convinced that it is very common indeed, that human nature is particularly prone to it, and that there are very few of us who do not cherish a feeling of self-complacency on the score of some quality or other, real or imaginary. Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.

Fitzwilliam Darcy - The son of a wealthy, well-established family and the master of the great estate of Pemberley, Darcy is Elizabeths male counterpart. The narrator relates Elizabeths point of view of events more often than Darcys, so Elizabeth often seems a more sympathetic figure. The reader eventually realizes, however, that Darcy is her ideal match. Intelligent and forthright, he too has a tendency to judge too hastily and harshly, and his high birth and wealth make him overly proud and overly conscious of his social status. Indeed, his haughtiness makes him initially bungle his courtship. When he proposes to her, for instance, he dwells more on how unsuitable a match she is than on her charms, beauty, or anything else complimentary. Her rejection of his advances builds a kind of humility in him. Darcy demonstrates his continued devotion to Elizabeth, in spite of his distaste for her low connections, when he rescues Lydia and the entire Bennet family from disgrace, and when he goes against the wishes of his haughty aunt, Lady Catherine de Bourgh, by continuing to pursue Elizabeth. Darcy proves himself worthy of Elizabeth, and she ends up repenting her earlier, overly harsh judgment of him.

Jane Bennet/Charles Bingley - Elizabeths beautiful elder sister and Darcys wealthy best friend, Jane and Bingley engage in a courtship that occupies a central place in the novel. They first meet at the ball in Meryton and enjoy an immediate mutual attraction. They are spoken of as a potential couple throughout the book, long before anyone imagines that Darcy and Elizabeth might marry. Despite their centrality to the narrative, they are vague characters, sketched by Austen rather than carefully drawn. Indeed, they are so similar in nature and behavior that they can be described together both are cheerful, friendly, and good-natured, always ready to think the best of others; they lack entirely the prickly egotism of Elizabeth and Darcy. Janes gentle spirit serves as a foil for her sisters fiery, contentious nature, while Bingleys eager friendliness contrasts with Darcys stiff pride. Their principal characteristics are goodwill and compatibility, and the contrast of their romance with that of Darcy and Elizabeth is remarkable. Jane and Bingley exhibit to the reader true love unhampered by either pride or prejudice, though in their simple goodness, they also demonstrate that such a love is mildly dull.

Mr. Bennet - Mr. Bennet is the patriarch of the Bennet household¡ªthe husband of Mrs. Bennet and the father of Jane, Elizabeth, Lydia, Kitty, and Mary. He is a man driven to exasperation by his ridiculous wife and difficult daughters. He reacts by withdrawing from his family and assuming a detached attitude punctuated by bursts of sarcastic humor. He is closest to Elizabeth because they are the two most intelligent Bennets. Initially, his dry wit and self- possession in the face of his wifes hysteria make him a sympathetic figure, but, though he remains likable throughout, the reader gradually loses respect for him as it becomes clear that the price of his detachment is considerable. Detached from his family, he is a weak father and, at critical moments, fails his family. In particular, his foolish indulgence of Lydias immature behavior nearly leads to general disgrace when she elopes with Wickham. Further, upon her disappearance, he proves largely ineffective. It is left to Mr. Gardiner and Darcy to track Lydia down and rectify the situation. Ultimately, Mr. Bennet would rather withdraw from the world than cope with it.

Mrs. Bennet - Mrs. Bennet is a miraculously tiresome character. Noisy and foolish, she is a woman consumed by the desire to see her daughters married and seems to care for nothing else in the world. Ironically, her single-minded pursuit of this goal tends to backfire, as her lack of social graces alienates the very people (Darcy and Bingley) whom she tries desperately to attract. Austen uses her continually to highlight the necessity of marriage for young women. Mrs. Bennet also serves as a middle-class counterpoint to such upper-class snobs as Lady Catherine and Miss Bingley, demonstrating that foolishness can be found at every level of society. In the end, however, Mrs. Bennet proves such an unattractive figure, lacking redeeming characteristics of any kind, that some readers have accused Austen of unfairness in portraying her¡ªas if Austen, like Mr. Bennet, took perverse pleasure in poking fun at a woman already scorned as a result of her ill breeding.

Bingley was by no means deficient, but Darcy was clever. He was at the same time haughty, reserved, and fastidious, and his manners, though well bred, were not inviting. In that respect his friend had greatly the advantage. Bingley was sure of being liked wherever he appeared; Darcy was continually giving offence.

The manner in which they spoke of the Meryton assembly was sufficiently characteristic. Bingley had never met with pleasanter people or prettier girls in his life; every body had been most kind and attentive to him, there had been no formality, no stiffness; he had soon felt acquainted with all the room; and as to Miss Bennet, he could not conceive an angel more beautiful. Darcy, on the contrary, had seen a collection of people in whom there was little beauty and no fashion, for none of whom he had felt the smallest interest, and from none received either attention or pleasure. Miss Bennet he acknowledged to be pretty, but she smiled too much.

Pride, observed Mary, who piqued herself upon the solidity of her reflections, is a very common failing I believe. By all that I have ever read, I am convinced that it is very common indeed, that human nature is particularly prone to it, and that there are very few of us who do not cherish a feeling of self-complacency on the score of some quality or other, real or imaginary. Vanity and pride are different things, though the words are often used synonymously. A person may be proud without being vain. Pride relates more to our opinion of ourselves, vanity to what we would have others think of us.



Please note that this sample paper on Analysis of Characters is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Analysis of Characters, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Analysis of Characters will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Martha Stewart and Insider Trading

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Martha Stewart and Insider Trading. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Martha Stewart and Insider Trading paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Martha Stewart and Insider Trading, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Martha Stewart and Insider Trading paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Martha Stewart and the question of Insider Trading

Martha Stewart has been in the news for the past several months because of allegations that she is guilty of insider trading. Stewart sold about ,000 shares of ImClone stock days before the Food and Drug Administration rejected the application for ImClone’s cancer drug, Erbitux. What makes it even more suspicious is that Martha Stewart is a close friend of Sam Waksal, who was the CEO of ImClone during this scandal. Waksal has since been put in jail for insider trading.

Stewart claims that it is just luck that she happened to sell her shares just before the announcement was made public and that she had no prior information about it. She said that she had a prior agreement with her broker, Peter Bacanovic, to sell her shares if the stock dropped below a certain target price. However, Bacanovic’s assistant, Doug Faneuil, has told the Securities and Exchange Commission that no such agreement was ever made. If these allegations are true, then I think that Martha Stewart is guilty of insider trading.

The crime of insider trading is the illegal use of nonpublic information about a company to make a profitable security transaction. This is exactly what Martha Stewart did. She sold shares a few days before it became public that ImClone’s Erbitux was not going to be approved by the FDA. Therefore, she sold her shares in the company before the stock price dropped, and avoided a nearly $00,000 loss.

livepaperhelp.com



The argument that exists is that it may be that Stewart got the news through Bacanovic that people in the know at ImClone were selling and that she should sell, too. Or she may have simply been advised that this was a good time to sell ImClone. And that if she did not learn directly or indirectly about Erbitux from company officers then she is not guilty of insider trading.

I disagree with this argument because of the fact that Stewart had such a close relationship with Waksal. This I think looks very unfavorable for Stewart because of the fact that Waksal admitted to insider trading himself, as well as to tipping of his daughter to sell her stock as well.

One of the first things that can be done to reduce the number of insider trades is to educate people further. I don’t mean this necessarily for officers of publicly held companies, because I feel that they are pretty well educated about when or when they are not allowed to buy or sell stock, but I think that people who have close relationships with these officers need to become aware of what is legal and not legal. Officers and directors of these corporations have a big networks of people they talk to and are involved with everyday, therefore I don’t think it is all that hard for an “outsider” to gain inside information.

Another idea that can be looked at in order to limit insider trading is to not allow officers and directors and their family members to own stock in their company. Although this is not something that I can ever see happening and this is not something that would have stopped Martha Stewart, I think that it is something that should be considered. With the number of unethical things are going on today in the business world, it wouldn’t surprise me if insider trading is even more prevalent than we think.



Please note that this sample paper on Martha Stewart and Insider Trading is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Martha Stewart and Insider Trading, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Martha Stewart and Insider Trading will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Sunday, August 19, 2012

Romantic Contrasts

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Romantic Contrasts. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Romantic Contrasts paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Romantic Contrasts, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Romantic Contrasts paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Romanticism and Classicism are two very distinct movements. Each philosophy contains many different ideas. Romanticism for example, is characterized by freedom of form and spirit. It places a strong emphasis on feeling and originality. Classicism on the other hand, is more structured and organized, holding reason, restraint, and conformity in high regard. These issues are just a scratch on the surface of these complex philosophies however, and in the following paragraphs I will try to discuss each in greater depth through a series of comparisons and contrasts.

The first pair that I have chosen is the butterfly and the spider. I feel that the spider is more romantic for several reasons. First, the butterfly is obviously pretty and the spider more sublime and awe-inspiring. The butterfly tends to be gentle, pleasurable and comforting. The spider, on the other hand, is universally portrayed as frightening. It is seen as dangerous and scheming in the way it builds it’s web and tricks other insects. It often spins it’s web near a light for it knows that insects will seek it’s glow and be lured to their death. A butterfly is also a herbivore, which is non-threatening. A spider sucks the blood of other insects, a trait that is dark, morbid, and mysterious. The butterfly is most often seen in the daytime, but the spider can be seen at night on it’s web silently awaiting it’s next victim. Despite the fact that I believe that the butterfly best personifies classicism, it does posses an important romantic quality. A butterflies persona is ambiguous and malleable. It is born a caterpillar and after it cocoons becomes the beautiful creature that represents joy and solace. The spider however, is rigid and fixed. It is born a spider and will die a spider.

My next pair is the pine tree and the rose bush. The rose bush is universally thought of as beautiful, symbolizing love and devotion. This would make the rose bush seem classic at first glance. After reviewing some of each plant’s attributes however, I decided that the rose bush is more romantic and the pine tree more classic. First, the pine tree is tall and stable, symmetrical, balanced, and harmonious. The rose bush is asymmetrical--full of angled lines and dynamic motion. A rose invokes feelings, passion, and emotion. A pine tree, although beautiful in its own way, tends not to share the universal sentiment that exists with a rose. The pine tree is also rather generic. Thousands of pines can occupy a few square miles, and there are millions of pine forests scattered all over the world. A rose bush, on the other hand, is more individualized. They must be carefully cultivated to truly thrive. The thorns of a rose bush may also be seen as dangerous. Another classic characteristic of a pine tree is that it is an evergreen. It can survive through all seasons and all types of weather. A rose bush dies in the winter, and death is a rather romantic quality.

Oprah and Jerry Springer. Could these shows be any more different? I think the most obvious romantic trait of Jerry Springer is that it not only exploits taboos, but profits by this exploitation. Jerry Springer is also rather purposeless, existing only for the entertainment of (for lack of a better word) morons. Oprah on the other hand, tends to broadcast shows with some meaning, whether it be how to keep your children safe or people sharing stories of how they changed their lives for the better. Oprah is also fairly traditional and predictable--classic traits. Jerry Springer is also rebellious and surprising. You never know what will happen next on Jerry Springer.

livepaperhelp.com



In the comparison between Hillary Clinton and Monica Lewinsky, I feel that Hillary is more classic and Monica the more romantic. First, Hillary protects taboos. Monica breaks and exploits them. Hillary seems ruled by her head and Monica by her heart. Hillary possesses reason, self-restraint, and a respect for authority. Monica on the other hand, cares about her feelings, passions, and emotions, and rebellion against authority. She also reinforces the impossibility of happy love. Hillary Clinton’s persona is fixed. She has remained the same poised individual for her eight or more years in the public eye. Even after it was revealed that her husband had an affair, she stood by him as she has during his entire political career. Monica Lewinsky is ambiguous and eccentric. One day she plays a scared girl who was taken advantage of, and the next she is a scheming femme-fatale.

In the pair television and radio, I feel that television is more romantic and radio more classic. First, radio is rather generic when compared to TV. Even though each broadcaster has a different voice, it is much easier to see individualism in the variety of programs on television. Radio is rather limited and fixed. The majority of radio programming consists of music, and the sports, news, and stories broadcast must be explained. In just a few minutes of watching TV you can see a much larger variety of programming then could ever be described on the radio. Especially in today’s era of special effects. There is almost nothing you can’t see on television. Radio is also rather rational and sensible on the whole. Television on the other hand, is a lot more personified. It typifies and embodies today’s crazy society.

My first thought in comparing an internet chat room and a hand-written note was that the hand-written note was more classic because it is more traditional. However, that is where the classic attributes of the hand-written note ended. The internet chat room is much more generic than a note. It consists of typed print and, except for the individual screen names, everything is the same. A hand-written note is much more individualized. It allows the eccentricity and idiosyncrasies of the writer to show through. It is full of feeling, passion, and imagination. The author’s own hand writing can tell a lot about them, even in a short note. If they are angry or upset, tired, excited, or joyful, these emotions will come through in the style in which the individual words are written. Hand-written notes are also a rebellion against changing technology. They show an importance for tradition and the past that a chat room just doesn’t have.

Another pair that I decided to compare is a black leather jacket and a coat of endangered leopard fur. One of the reasons that I feel that the fur coat is more romantic that the leather one is because the fur coat is rather purposeless. Thousands of cattle are killed every day for food, and there is certainly no shortage of leather. Leopards on the other hand, are endangered, and there is absolutely no reason to kill one for the simple vanity of wearing it’s pelt. Fur in general is seen as illicit and forbidden by many people. To kill an animal for no other reason than to strip it of it’s fur is wasteful--especially an animal already near extinction. This is an example of the romantic portrayal of the world as complicated and unjust. Another romantic attribute of the fur is it’s excessive ornateness. A black leather jacket is nice, but a lot simpler than a leopard fur coat. I would hardly compare it to the extravagance or flashiness of fur.

The last comparison I chose to make is between masks and nakedness. I feel that nakedness is more romantic for several reasons. First, for millions of years it has been forbidden in civilized society. Being naked is rebellious and risqu�. It is an indulgence of feeling and a freedom of form and spirit. It leaves nothing to the imagination and shows humans as natural beings, products of nature which are beautiful just as they are. Masks portray humans as social beings. Since society tells us that we must cover ourselves, we are products of the rules of our social order. Nakedness also questions authority for, at least in the United States, there are laws against indecent exposure. Covering oneself, on the other hand, is traditional and displays an exercise in restraint. It shows respect for authority and protects conventional social restrictions. Masks are also rather generic and free of prejudice for everyone looks the same.



Please note that this sample paper on Romantic Contrasts is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Romantic Contrasts, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Romantic Contrasts will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Tuesday, August 14, 2012

Global Culture Changes

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Global Culture Changes. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Global Culture Changes paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Global Culture Changes, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Global Culture Changes paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Global Culture Challenges

Synopsis of key issues in this case

ARPCO operates in a global environment; however, ARPCO does not have a shared culture that crosses borders. The local culture has a stronger influence on the way business is conducted than the corporate culture, which is proving to be a major challenge for ARPCO management. Due to corporate culture immaturity and undefined values, ARPCO cannot support the growth of its most talented people on a global level.

If APRCO does not address the culture crisis, legal matters are bound to evolve and corporate image will be tarnished. Ultimately, this would lead to negative impacts for APRCO’s bottom line and would significantly reduce its ability to attract and retain talented people.

live paper help



What is the challenge Wollen faces in making the decision to promote Lewis? What is her responsibility to Lewis?

The challenge Wollen faces in making the decision to promote Lewis is whether she can break through the culture barriers and obtain buy-in on a plan that supports Lewis in the new position. The culture barriers are strong, as can be seen with Abbott’s resistance to accept Lewis after learning of his race. If Wollen and Lewis decide to move forward with the promotion, a well thought out plan approved from the top will be required to ensure success for Lewis and for ARPCO. Without the proper support, Lewis could fail in a job that he was well prepared to do, which would be painful to Lewis and his family.

Wollen has three major responsibilities to Lewis. First, she should make him aware of the key risks and challenges associated with the new position. Second, she should describe to Lewis her commitment and ARPCO’s commitment to support him in the new position. Third, she must follow through on her commitment to support Lewis. Ultimately, the decision to accept the opportunity or not should be made by Lewis after the risks have been clarified.

Is it always wrong to consider gender, race, and ethnicity in promotion decisions, even if the “equal” opportunity might end a manager’s career?

Gender, race, and ethnicity should never be considered in promotion decisions. The decision should be based instead on an individual’s qualifications. In this case, Lewis was intelligent, hardworking, experienced, creative, and a top performer on the fast track who was the most qualified for the new position. Therefore, Lewis should be given the option to accept the position regardless of his race.

Evidence that promotion decisions should never consider gender, race, and ethnicity can be found in the Nineteenth Century Civil Rights Act. The Nineteenth Century Civil Rights Act provides protection against employment discrimination, which includes discriminatory practices such as bias in hiring, promotion, job assignment, termination, compensation, and various types of harassment. Additionally, the courts have ruled in such cases that employers need to meet a “but for” test. In other words, the employer must prove that the same employment decision would have been made for the same reasons regardless of sex or minority status (Walker, 1, p. 10).

Since globalization is a very real environment factor in business, what are the challenges U.S. corporations face in the changing environment?

As the environment changes to increasingly conduct business in a global framework, U.S. corporations are challenged with shaping corporate culture for the new workplace. Immigration, technology, emerging markets and economies, mergers, joint ventures, strategic alliances and foreign investment have brought all the world’s citizens to one another’s doorstep. People must now learn to communicate, work and compete with others who are not like themselves.

“Companies may be putting an emphasis on creating diverse workforces, but more minorities claim they are facing barriers to promotions once on the job” (Armour, 001, USA Today.com) According to Armour, the number of employees filing federal claims regarding discrimination in promotions based on race has nearly doubled since 10. Further evidence includes a 1 poll by Society for Human Resources Management, which concluded that nearly 75% of employers say that minorities face barriers to advancement.

Companies that do not provide shared cultural values will loose competitive position in the global marketplace. “A Fortune magazine survey found that CEOs cite organizational culture as their most important mechanism for attracting, motivating, and retaining talented employees, a capability they consider the single best predictor of overall organizational excellence.” (Daft, 00, p. 4)

What are the risks associated with Lewis’ promotion?

There are a number of risks associated with Lewis’s promotions, which impact Lewis, Wollen and ARPCO. The first is that Lewis could fail in a job that he was well prepared to do, which would be painful to Lewis and his family. The second risk is that if Lewis fails then ARPCO’s corporate image could suffer. Thirdly, if Lewis fails in the new position it will be reflected in Wollen’s performance record. Finally, if his promotion is passed over, then the company is subject to a discrimination law suit and Lewis may not remain long with ARPCO.

There are many risks associated with Lewis’ promotion and each could potentially be very detrimental. The only foreseeable way for ARPCO to reduce its risk and create an environment that eliminates future risk, is to reshape the culture for conducting business in the global arena.

What are the benefits to Wollen and to the organization if Lewis is promoted?

If Lewis’ promotion is successful, then ARPCO and Wollen would realize significant benefits. For example, ARPCO would avoid legal issues and improve corporate image through increased diversity, which would enable them to attract and retain talented people. Wollen’s benefits would include recognition for developing Lewis and for moving the company’s diversity and culture a big step forward. Wollen would also gain self satisfaction with helping Lewis progress is career.

What managerial skills would you use (if you were Wollen and you did promote Lewis), to insure the optimum benefit to all the “players” in this situation?

Only one key managerial skill stands out, that would insure optimum benefit for all, and that is Human skill. The Human skill required in this case is made up of leadership, mentoring, and relationship building.

Through leadership and mentoring, both Lewis and Wollen benefit. Lewis would have the advantage of an “assistant coach” and he would have the needed level of trust and confidence to be successful. Wollen would benefit personally and professionally.

Through relationship building, both Lewis and Abbott benefit. If Wollen develops a relationship with Abbott, then she helps reduce the culture gap. A well developed relationship would also provide support for both Lewis and Abbott when issues arise.

Recommendations

The global business environment has presented major challenges for ARPCO. In order to retain competitive position, avoid discrimination law suits, create a diverse workforce, attract talented people, eliminate bottom line impact, retain key employees and fully leverage intellectual capital, ARPCO needs to create culture change. Unless the culture crisis is addressed, ARPCO will continue to have difficulty conducting business in the global arena.

It is recommended that a Culture Change Plan be developed. Upper management must approve and sponsor the plan. Human Resources will facilitate the program and leverage middle managers to execute the plan. A proposed plan has been created and should be used as a starting point. See Table 1 for the proposed plan.



Please note that this sample paper on Global Culture Changes is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Global Culture Changes, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Global Culture Changes will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Monday, August 13, 2012

Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers?

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers?. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers? paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers?, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers? paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Although many of us think we are, I personally disagree that we are a nation of animal lovers. A lot of us immediately think of cute, sweet happy creatures when the word animal is said. This is probably true but do we treat them the way they should be?

Fox Hunting is a good example of the way many people mistreat animals, killing foxes for a sport. In my honest opinion this is cruel and unnecessary. The dogs a trained to give a quick bit at the fox’s neck, and even if this is painless the fox is dead. The Dogs are also mistreated, hunters use then to kill the fox when they could be treated much more fairly. I say, if it’s banned in Scotland why not in England?

I also think some people keep some pets at home when they belong in their natural habitats. For example, a know a couple of people who keep snakes or mountain animals like sheep or goats; although they may be used to living in a home I think they should live in whatever country or wherever they are supposed to live in.

I hate the idea of Bear-Dancing in place like India because it is not dancing it just the bear trying to get free from torture and staring people. Can you image being tied up in the most horrific way, being stared out then your owner get the ‘credit’ and the money and then being kept locked up when you are not working?

live paper help



My conclusion to this is that maybe people shouldn’t just think about them and other people, maybe animals as well.



Please note that this sample paper on Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers? is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers?, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on Are We A Nation Of Animal Lovers? will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Saturday, August 11, 2012

American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities paper at affordable prices with Live Paper Help!



Many may wonder what the true definition of the American Dream is. Personally, the American Dream is a something that people desire to achieve in America because it is considered a land opportunity. It is all about making a change. This change refers to socio-economic position in the society. It is important to note that it is fair. The amount of diligent work one puts in always equals the outcome that is appropriate outcome. The amount of hard work, which can also considered as an input, is the exact amount you get as an output or a reward. This reward can be anything from upward-mobility to higher social status or greater financial freedom. These concepts are well illustrated in the work of Eric Liu’s “Notes of a Native Speaker” and Mike Rose’s “I Just Wanna Be Average”. Liu’s work is well fit in the areas of ethnic identity and multiculturalism and Rose’s work discusses institutional forces that hinders upward movement in socio-economic system that convey class oppressions. Combining theses definitive concepts, it is going to be easier to make lucid that the American dream is surmounting the difference in socio-economic system, overcoming the institutionally oppressive forces and reinventing the ethnic identity in the multicultural society. It is recognizing and assessing oneself and making a difference. All common final output of the American Dream is that you fit into the society and you are in the social status where one desires to be. Thus reinvention of new ethnic identity, and living it up with the cultural pluralism is the key to the success in the society. This is the only way that you can open the door of American dream.

First of all, it is important to note Eric Liu’s conditions and his reinvention of the ethic identities.

But precisely because the times have changed, that aspiration � and the imputation of the aspiration � now seems astonishingly outmoded. The meaning of ‘American’ has undergone a revolution in the twenty-nine years I have been alive, a revolution of color, class, and culture. Yet the vocabulary of “assimilation” has remained fixed all this time fixed in whiteness, which is still our metonym for power; and fixed in shame, which is what the colored are expected to fell for embracing the power.

His notion of assimilation is crucial in understanding the reinvention of new identity. One has to assimilate oneself first in order to reinvent a new ethnic identity that fits his new “revolution of color, class and culture”. Liu means by revolution that his old ways of perception had changed to something new and extreme. He thought that white represented the power in his mind and he transformed himself into white internally so that he also can share this power. Thus his “amputation” meant his letting go of old Asian American, Chinese immigrant weakness and his reinvention of new ethnic identity is key to his American Dream. Liu is able to do this because he was able to understand what assimilation is. He was able to take in something that he did not have and he modified it to fit it to himself. This idea of assimilation is also present in the work of Mike Rose where he had to assimilate himself into students who were in the vocational track. Even though Rose did not belong to the vocational track where intellectually inferior or “slow” kids are grouped, he was able to assimilate aptly. The new self whom Rose created himself from the vocational track made him more competitive and keen when he was placed back in the college prep track. Rose’s social hurdle of interlectual capability and Liu’s socio-economic hindrance that only ASWP can succeed were both surmounted by both authors by reinvention of the second identity which is more apt to the new environment where dreams are pursued.

live paper help



Second of all, it is important to note how assimilation supports the similarity among social groups and cultural pluralist celebrate difference among the social groups.

Thus, it is imperative to discuss who actually assimilates who is the cultural pluralist and what really happens. “Unlike assimilations, cultural pluralists celebrate differences among groups rather than seek to obliterate them. They argue that cultural diversity is a healthy and normal condition that does not preclude equal rights and the mutual understandings about civic responsibilities needed to sustain a democratic nation-state”(608). This is the reason that the assimilation and cultural pluralism have to coexist. If one only accepts something new and learn from the old self, then the process of the assimilation will no longer be meaningful. This is the reason why you keep the old but modify with the new surroundings and ideas. Eric Liu knew the fact that he could not be white physically. He was Chinese. He also knew that he could fit into the white environment if he transforms himself internally. What he could not do externally, he was able to do it internally.

Furthermore, it is very important to understand and relate the concepts that are mentioned above are with Fredrickson stated about the cultural pluralism. “Of the four models of American ethic relations, the one I believe offers the best hope for a just and cohesive society is a cultural pluralism that is fully inclusive and based on the free choices of individuals to construct or reconstruct their own ethnic identities” (608).

Fredrickson’s best hope for the just and cohesive society is a cultural pluralism. Cultural pluralism gives options and it is individual will to construct or reconstruct his or her image. Without a doubt, cultural pluralism is the key to this difficult and a long struggle in American society. This battle can be seen in Liu’s work when he reconstructed himself to an American who is most American-like. Even though he was an Asian American, he was whiter than most people and most American than most people. The reason is because he had completely transformed himself to a different person internally and externally. One of the options he was able to observe was being white fit in his high-class friends. He is married to white woman, speak perfect English may be better than most of the Americans in this country since he was the speechwriter for the former

Throughout the course of this paper, the key concepts of “institutionally oppressive forces” and the notion of “social class” will be broken down and overcome by the attitude of one’s willingness to success and attainment of education. I believe that in order to gain a standing in the social ladder or to overcome an “institutionally oppressive forces” one has to gain an alternative perspective from the original point of view. One of the most affective in doing so is attainment of education.

Above all, there are many obstacles that are in the way of the American Dream. They are simply color, class and culture. However we have assimilation, cultural pluralism and equal opportunity to fight the battle against the obstacles that hinder our way to the American Dream. The American dream is surmounting the difference in socio-economic system, overcoming the institutionally oppressive forces and reinventing the ethnic identity in the multicultural society. Eric Liu was able to do this with ease because he knew what chances to take and what he has to be in order to fulfill his dreams. He may be simply state that he was just trying to fit in and succeed. However Eric Liu did everything that he can do surmount and assimilate many obstacles and drawbacks



Please note that this sample paper on American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on American Dream, Cultural Pluralism and Ethnic Diversities will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from Live Paper Help and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!