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Monday, June 18, 2012

Its goal is to completely map and sequence all of the genetic material that makes us humanWhen it is done, we will have a new and profoundly powerful tool to help us to unravel the mysteries of how the human body grows and functions.The cells in our bodie

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Its goal is to completely map and sequence all of the genetic material that makes us human

When it is done, we will have a new and profoundly powerful tool to help us to unravel the mysteries of how the human body grows and functions.

The cells in our bodies each contain a master program which controls how and when they develop and how they should function. This information is organised in units called genes, which are arrayed, one after the other along long polymers called chromosomes. We have 46 chromosomes, arranged in pairs kept in the nucleus of most cells. The chromosomes are made of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

It is comprised of just four building blocks, or residues, strung together in enormously long strings. The residues combine to make our genes, and our genes string together to make our chromosomes.

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A genetic linkage map shows the relative locations of specific DNA markers along the chromosome. Any inherited physical or molecular characteristic that differs among individuals and is easily detectable in the laboratory is a potential genetic marker. Markers can be expressed DNA regions (genes) or DNA segments that have no known coding function but whose inheritance pattern can be followed. DNA sequence differences are especially useful markers because they are plentiful and easy to characterize precisely. Cells have a second type of nucleic acid - RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) which can also carry genetic information

The messenger RNA (mRNA) carries genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes

where it is translated into a protein. mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus based on a single DNA strand, using the RNA polymerase enzyme. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA strand only in locations called open reading frames

In eukaryotes, the mRNA is formed of coding and non-coding regions. Coding regions are the regions used to carry real genetic information. Non coding regions do not carry such information (see below).

The coding regions are called exons, since they are able to leave the nucleus and reach the Ribosome. The non-coding regions are called introns and never leave the nucleus.

Physical maps describe the chemical characteristics of the DNA molecule itself.

chromosomal mapping can be used to locate genetic markers defined by traits observable only in whole organisms. Because chromosomal maps are based on estimates of physical distance, they are considered to be physical maps. The number of base pairs within a band can only be estimated.

New genes can be located by combining genetic and physical map information for a region. The genetic map basically describes gene order. Rough information about gene location is sometimes available also, but these data must be used with caution because recombination is not equally likely at all places on the chromosome. Thus the genetic map, compared to the physical map, stretches in some places and compresses in others, as though it were drawn on a rubber band.

Technological improvements now make possible the cloning of large DNA pieces, using artificially constructed chromosome vectors that carry human DNA fragments as large as 1 Mb. These vectors are maintained in yeast cells as artificial chromosomes (YACs). Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YACs), or pieces of human DNA carried in yeast, in order to complete the map. The investigators compared 16 of these YACs and used the common, overlapping regions to determine the correct order of the DNA and to locate a series of markers along the chromosome.

YAC methodology drastically reduces the number of clones to be ordered; many YACs span entire human genes. A more detailed map of a large YAC insert can be produced by subcloning, a process in which fragments of the original insert are cloned into smaller- insert vectors. Because some YAC regions are unstable, large- capacity bacterial vectors (i.e., those that can accommodate large inserts) are also being developed.

Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs) are the most broadly used DNA clone resource for large genome sequencing programs. Sequence reads at the ends of cloned DNAs mark the boundaries of DNA contained within, and are called sequence tag connectors (STCs

The BACs representing a genome can together serve as a scaffold on which much shorter DNA sequence assemblies can be located.

The physical maps of the Y chromosome that weve made should make it much easier to explore the biology of the chromosome that to this time has been one of the most mysterious, said Page. The Y chromosome is particularly mysterious because it is difficult to investigate through family inheritance studies, he said. I think the biology of the Y chromosome can only be explored from the DNA level up.

scientists has found that a specific defect in the male sex chromosome (the Y chromosome) may be responsible for 1 percent of cases of azoospermia, the complete inability to make sperm and the most severe form of male infertility. The study is one of the first to demonstrate that genetic defects can sometimes explain infertility in otherwise healthy couples and could lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms required to make healthy sperm

Fairness in the use of genetic information by insurers, employers, courts, schools, adoption agencies, and the military, among others.

Who should have access to personal genetic information, and how will it be used?

Psychological impact and stigmatization due to an individuals genetic differences.

How does personal genetic information affect an individual and societys perceptions of that individual?

How does genomic information affect members of minority communities

Reproductive issues including adequate informed consent for complex and potentially controversial procedures, use of genetic information in reproductive decision making, and reproductive rights.

Do healthcare personnel properly counsel parents about the risks and limitations of genetic technology?

How reliable and useful is fetal genetic testing?

What are the larger societal issues raised by new reproductive technologies?

Clinical issues including the education of doctors and other health service providers, patients, and the general public in genetic capabilities, scientific limitations, and social risks; and implementation of standards and quality-control measures in testing procedures.

How will genetic tests be evaluated and regulated for accuracy, reliability, and utility? (Currently, there is little regulation at the federal level.)

How do we prepare healthcare professionals for the new genetics?

How do we prepare the public to make informed choices?

How do we as a society balance current scientific limitations and social risk with long-term benefits?

The difference between somatic and germ line gene therapy is transmission (or not) of the transgene to future generations. Somatic cells are all the cells in your body other than those directly involved in reproduction. In the female these are the eggs and in the male it is the sperm and those cells that give rise to sperm (these cells are generically termed gametes). Thus, somatic gene therapy will only effect the individual who receives the treatment since none of the reproductive cells will receive the transgene.

In contrast, gene therapy targeted to the germ cells will result in gametes (eggs or sperm) with the transgene. If the gene therapy patient then has children, the children will also have the transgene.

Most scientists and the public have accepted the idea of somatic gene therapy, it is thought of like any other experimental treatment. There is an ethical and a practical concern that if gene therapy targeted to germ cells is successful then people will try to custom-design their children with enhancing genes that may not be in the best interest for the health or welfare of their children. Abuse of the gene therapy technology targeted to the germ cells is particularly troubling when you realize that modifications to the germ line are permanent, effecting all the future generations

The main area of disagreement is whether human genes themselves can be regarded as inventions or products. The pharmaceutical industry is arguing that they are inventions and that without additional legal protection for gene-based medicines, companies would have no way of getting an adequate return on their investment in DNA research. However, this implies that at present products which use, or are based on, human genes are not protected. This is simply not true as the four main types of medicinal products in this area, small molecule drugs, protein therapeutics, gene therapies and genetic screening tests, are already well-covered by the patent system.

To investigate the variation occurring in the human genome by studying samples collected from populations that are representative of all of the worlds peoples, and

Ultimately, to create a resource for the benefit of all humanity and for the scientific community worldwide. The resource will exist as a collection of biological samples that represents the genetic variation in human populations worldwide and also as an open, long-term, genetic and statistical database on variation in the human species that will accumulate as the biological samples are studied by scientists from around the world.

The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) is working to gather DNA samples from 7 distinct indigenous peoples all over the globe.(1) The presumption is that, if these peoples die out under imperialist oppression, the human race will be no less diverse for the wear.

proposes to collect and catalogue genetic samples from indigenous nations classified as endangered and facing extinction. HGDP will make the samples available to researchers with the goals of discovering these nations histories of migration and evolution and the degree of variance in human genes, and identifying genetic susceptibility to disease

The position of indigenous peoples vis a vis biotechnology is still evolving. The common thread in the various positions is the view that life-forms should not be patented. If the ownership of patents on life-forms is the main incentive for scientists and corporations to invest in biotechnology, it might be a good idea not to allow this. The benevolent motives avowed by scientists who want to contribute to sustainable development should not be tainted by the commercialization or commodification of life.

It should be recognized that indigenous peoples have a right to their intellectual and cultural heritage; This right is being blatantly violated by developments in biotechnology

HUMAN GENOME PROJECT GOALS Resolution

ɨ Complete a detailed human genetic map Mb

ɨ Complete a physical map 0.1 Mb

ɨ Acquire the genome as clones 5 kb

ɨ Determine the complete sequence 1 bp

ɨ Find all the genes

With the data generated by the project, investigators will determine the functions of the genes and develop tools for biological and medical applications.



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baseball

If you order your custom term paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on baseball. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality baseball paper right on time.

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Hamlet identifies with an adolescent of the 10’s more than he does with the youth of his own time. Hamlet is immature, sarcastic, and takes action during the heat of passion which is very much like the behavior of the youth in the 10’s.

Love, control over action, and the ability to overcome depression are just a few ways to prove maturity. It is obvious Hamlet loves Ophelia in his own way “... the celestial and my soul’s idol, the most beautified Ophelia ...” (Hamlet. II, ii, 10-110), but his way is not mature enough to include trust toward his lover. The trust that Hamlet should have given her was the key of his madness. This madness that Hamlet cannot trust his love with is the same madness that he loses total control over because of his immaturity; it then causes him to do things, such as kill Polonius, that a person that was mature could stop. The madness that Hamlet assumes is understandable but he can never get over the actual death of his father by still wearing black a year later, and the hasty marriage of his mother to Claudius. Compared to Horatio who is calm and cool throughout the play, and Fortinbras who collected an army to fight for his uncle’s land and honor, Hamlet’s maturity level for his time is low, especially for being a prince. Today Hamlet’s age group is more immature than during his own time so he relates to the youth of the 10’s better than he does with the adolescents of his own time.

Sarcasm, and blunt rudeness is often used by Hamlet in order to offend people that, during his time, he should not have offended. Hamlet often used the hasty marriage of his mother to offend Claudius. The first time that Hamlet offends Claudius in the company of another person is when Claudius is supposed to be helping cheer Hamlet up. “A little more than kin, and less than kind.” (Hamlet. I, ii, 65) is just as rude during Hamlet’s time as almost anything that a person could say today, it just takes a little thinking for the people of today to get what Hamlet means.

The second person that Hamlet is openly rude to is Polonius. Hamlet, in front of Claudius and Gertrude, insults Polonius by calling him “... a fishmonger.” (Hamlet. II, ii, 174) This is not the only way that Hamlet offended Polonius. Hamlet offended Polonius by insulting his daughter. Hamlet is crude in his own day by asking Ophelia “Lady, shall I lie in your lap?” (Hamlet. III, ii, 115) What is strange about Hamlet’s ability to use his mouth is that the youth of today is able to use the same kinds of sarcasm and rudeness effectively, just as Hamlet does, but with Hamlet’s political position he should not have offended the people such as his stepfather.

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Being radical and acting on impulse is something that Hamlet had to use in order to get his work finished. Hamlet, having a hard time getting revenge, applied his anger from the judgment of his mother to kill who he thought was Claudius. Hamlet also needed to be on his own deathbed in order to finally get angry enough to kill Claudius. The way that Hamlet uses his anger to take action is very much like the youth today in the fact that if someone has a problem with log cutting, for example, they hold protests and take action against that problem.

The second way that Hamlet is extreme is when he goes with the ghost that looks like his father even though his friends warn him that the ghost may be evil and “...tempt you toward the flood ... Or to the dreadful summit of the cliff ...” (Hamlet. I, iv, 6-70). If the prince was thinking right he would not have gone with the ghost that resembled the old “... King, father, royal Dane ...” (Hamlet. I, iv, 45) Hamlet’s radical actions do not just prove that he is immature but also proves that he needs action from outside sources in order to get a reaction from himself. This is just like the youth of the 10’s in the respect that if something is wrong, such as the cutting of an old growth forest, then they usually act against it in dramatic ways.

An immature, mouthy, extremist is what adolescents of the 10’s are compared to the youth of Hamlet’s time. The inability to love maturely, rudeness towards authority, and reacting to anger is what the youth of the 10’s and Hamlet have in common. Hamlet would have a much easier time living during these times than his own. Hamlet’s immaturity, rudeness, and radical behavior is just like today’s youth and that is the insight that Hamlet has towards the youth of the 10’s.



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Prejudice and Racism from The Chrysalids

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Prejudice and Racism

Racism is defined as discrimination or prejudice based on race. To be prejudice or racist it is to have an opinion or judgment to be against a certain race or person not of your own culture. This can result in large disagreements between different races. The author expresses racism in this novel through certain events, main characters, the setting and the choice of words he uses to support the theme. The protagonist, David Strorm, the differences between the Norms and the Fringes, the laws of the Waknuk society and the ways of living are all illustrations of racism. John Wyndham’s novel, The Chrysalids, shows prejudice and racism throughout a major part of the novel. It shows what life is like when you do or do not respect people for their race, looks, talents, or way of life.

David Strorm, the protagonist, is not accepted in his society because he is different from the other people. He is able to communicate with a small group of friends through telepathy. He is just like all of the other people in his community until people start finding out about his ability to communicate through thought-shapes. David is a very respectful and truthful person who accepts all people for who they are because he knows what it’s like to be in danger and not accepted by his family, or other people that live in his community. Because David has a minor difference from the other people in his society, he does not fit in with them. David has to face a dangerous life because of the person he is, even though he cannot control his differences. Working with friends, David decides that he will find a place where he can be accepted for who he is and not be judged.

The people of the Fringes and the Norms are two different groups of people that are both racist against one other. The people of the Fringes are known to live in the ‘Badlands’ when speaking from the Norms point of view. Just from hearing the name of their community, one is able to interpret that the Norms do not accept the people of the Fringes, or anyone that is not like themselves. This tells us that the Norms consider themselves to be perfect, or as understood through their name, normal or average. Though it sounds like the Norms are against the Fringes’ people, and the Fringes’ people do not take part in their non-acceptance; it does work both ways. The people living in the Badlands are very strict. If there is a person coming into their lands from the community of Waknuk, they are sent to the leader of the Fringes to be inspected. When they catch any Norms trespassing in their land, the Norm may be tortured or punished. They do not just let people into their community that are running away from their own. There must be reasons and proof that they truly do belong to the Fringes.

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There are many rules and laws in the Waknuk society that prove that there is a large amount of racism throughout the novel. “Only the image of God is man.” (Wyndham18). This quote tells us what they expect if you live in Waknuk. If you do not have the proper number of arms, legs, fingers, or toes or if you do not follow the image that is described by God, you are not known as a human being. Since there are people that look different and have different talents, abilities, or disabilities, they are not accepted or respected by the people of Waknuk. This eventually led to war because people are against others who are not exactly like them. “Blessed is the norm, and in purity our salvation.” (18) This quote shows us that the people of Waknuk believe that they are perfect. Everyone in this community follows and believes in everything these quotes tell you. They all follow the same rules and religion. This is what makes them all similar and keeps them together as a community.

In the novel, The Chrysalids, the ways of living show a large amount of racism. The two races are against each other because they have differences. Their disrespect ends up with many people killed and war between the two groups. All of the Norms follow the same religion. They must all be perfect and have the same human features and nothing more, or they are not accepted by the Norms, but would be accepted by the people of the Fringes. They are punished if they are caught in Waknuk for being different than everyone else. They would be known as a deviant. The Norms and the deviants live on two different pieces of land separated by water. They do not communicate with each other because they disagree with the rules and laws of one another’s society. Because of these differences and ways of living, there are two races totally against each other and they end up at war.

The Chrysalids shows us what our life would be like if we all disrespected one another based on our looks, talents, abilities, or disabilities. Living life through prejudice and racism is exactly what the characters in the novel are doing. It is evident in this novel that people do not get along when we do not accept and respect people for who they are.



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Tuesday, June 5, 2012

Coaching Children. Sports Coaching

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From a very young age I personally can remember playing with a ball with my dad, it was great, no pressure just a ball. Later on when I hit primary, things got a bit more difficult skills and techniques were shown with the ball and it was recomended that we should play with the ball in this fashion. Slowly competitive situations were introduced. This is the key factor here. Children showed be given time to play in a non competeitive situation until about 1 years old, before throwing them into a competitive arena. If this is done before puberty, there is a chance of burnout and the child wont enjoy the sport. Sport for Children is about fun. Remember that. So as a coachyou should make your sessions, easy, with a little skill and a lot of games, let the kids play. Make it a non threatning, non competitve enviorment. If this is not done, Kids will burnout and begin to lose intrest in the sport. It is also important that parents dont put to much pressure on there kids, and you has a coach on occasion have to remind parents of this, after all you are in loco parentis. Which basically means, satnding in the shoes of parents. YOu are also, one of this childs significant others(outside influence on him/her). So it is important you tell parents if they are putting too mush pressure on there kids.

You should also try and make games where everyone is a winner, e.g. give everyone a star after a game. Dont let any child go away feeling as if he has lost.

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