Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Mid Life: Crisis or Opportunity?

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Im told by my wife Im suffering from mid-life crisis. I dont think so - I think my feelings are not related to anything concerning the stage of my life but instead to the actions of my wife. For the past several years, she has steadily made my life miserable. I confess, I never told her so, I just allowed her to continue on in the manner she was, thinking by going along with her I was avoiding fights and conflict. She should have been paying attention - then she would have noticed I was not happy. She didnt though, she just assumed everything was fine because thats what she wanted to assume. Or so I see it - she sees it otherwise. She says by my not saying anything to her about my unhappiness, she was encouraging her to continue on the path she was, since she thought I was content, therefore she was on the right track. Hmmm....I dont want to think about that line of thought - it makes me uncomfortable. Im too happy to blame her for this; I dont want her bringing up ideas that dont fall into my way of thinking. Oh, did I mention the 0 year younger woman I met last year? She is everything my wife of years is not - outgoing, adventurous,interested in everything I do or say, slender, and mother to a young boy. Yes, I have daughters but heck, what man doesnt want a son?! And here it is all in one neat package, too bad my wife and girls wont just pack up and disappear so I can be happy for a change. Mid life crisis - what a bunch of hooey!

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I. Circle the letter of the correct answer Dante’s Peak

1. What state is Dante’s Peak located?

. Why was Dante’s Peak considered a wonderful place to live?

. Who was the mayor of Dante’s Peak?

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4. How were the two people at the hot springs killed?

5. Who was Harry Dalton?

6. What did Dalton find when he checked the water?

7. What was killing the plants and animals

8. Why was the volcano at Dante’s Peak considered dormant?

. Why did Dalton’s boss call off the alert?

10. How did Terry break his leg?

11. What did Dalton call the earthquakes that were occurring

1. Why was the US Geological Survey team leaving Dante’s Peak?

1. Why was a town meeting called?

14. Why did the people panic?

15. Why were the bridges collapsing

16. Why did Rachel Wandall’s children take the vehicle?

17. What was covering everything in Dante’s Peak?

18. What caused the boat to sink?

1. What happened to the grandmother?

0. What is a pyroclastic cloud

II. Odysseus

1. Who is Odysseus?

. What two countries are at war

. Who is Penelope

4. What is Penelope to do if her husband does not return

5. What does Odysseus want to leave his son?

6. Why does Athena want Odysseus to go to war?

7. Who is Hector?

8. What happens to the soothsayer?

. How long does the war between the two countries last?

0. How is Troy defeated?

1. Why does Poseidon punish Odysseus?

. How does Odysseus get separated from the fleet

. What does Penelope accuse Odysseus’s mother of having?

4. Where does Odysseus first land?

5. Why doesn’t the Cyclops eat Odysseus?

6. How do Odysseus’s men escape the Cyclops?

7. Who does the second island belong to?

8. How does Aeolieous help Odysseus return to Ithaca?

. Why does Aeolieous help Odysseus?

40. What happened just before Odysseus reached Ithaca?

41. Who was turning the men into animals?

4. Who offered advice and protection from the witch’s spell?

4. How does Odysseus break the witch’s spell?

44. How long does Odysseus stay with Circe? months

45. Where is Tereseius, the prophet?

46. How does Odysseus get to the prophet?

47. How can Odysseus find Ithaca?

48. Who is the king of the underworld? a

4. Who shows Odysseus the way out of the underworld?

50. What happens to Odysseus’s men?

51. What is happening in Ithaca while Odysseus is away?

5. Whose island does Odysseus become a prisoner of?

5. How does Odysseus free himself from this prison?

54. What does Poseidon want from Odysseus

55. Whose kingdom does Poseidon place Odysseus

56. What does Odysseus finally understand?

57. Where do the Phoenicians take Odysseus?

58. What happens to Penelope’s tapestry?

5. Where does Athena send Talimicus?

60. What news does Odysseus’s son receive?

61. Who allows Odysseus to return to Ithaca?

6. Why doesn’t Odysseus go directly home?

6. Why does Athena make Odysseus an old beggar?

64. How does Odysseus’s nursemaid recognize him

65. Why does Odysseus kill all the suitors?

III. Study the following spelling words

66. across

67. acquaint

68. beautiful

6. which

70. Wednesday

71. usually

7. true

7. together

74. thorough

75. surprise

76. speech

77. since

78. similar

7. separate

80. secretary

81. recommend

8. realize

8. privilege

84. pleasant

85. once

86. ninety

87. necessary

88. occasion

8. minute

0. knowledge

1. library

. interesting

. grammar

4. government

5. forty

6. finally

7. film

8. February

. false

100. experience

101. doctor

10. disappoint

10. disappear

104. different

105. description

106. describe

107. definite

108. decision

10. committee

110. clothes

111. character

11. business

11. benefit

114. athletic

115. immediately

III. Write the correct verb form

116. The hike leader had finished a good portion of the trail before he realized three hikers had _______ behind. (fall)

117. The records showed that I had already _______ Spanish I last year. (take)

118. Vicky suspected that Judy _______ about the surprise party. (know)

11. The coach had _______ he resignation letter yesterday. (give)

10. To my surprise, Tommy stopped being a poor student and _______ a real scholar. (become)

11. The Ricky Martin concert ______ a bigger crowd that expected. (draw)

1. Although Sarah had already _______ a skateboard, she still wanted a scooter. (get)

1. The burglar accidentally _______ his gloves in the apartment, giving the police a strong clue. (leave)

14. During the literature portion of the exam, Jessica could not remember who ______ the story she had just read. (write)

15. Tom is grounded because he _______ his curfew last Saturday. (break)

16. I had just ______ the main course when they ordered dessert. (bring)

17. Matthew ______ the flowers on his grandfather’s grave. (lay)

18. Mrs. Baily _____to have her son removed from the math class. (seek)

1. The little girl _____ a striking resemblance to her great aunt. (bear)

10. By holding in his angry feelings, Randy only _____ more hostility. (breed)

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Sunday, January 29, 2012


If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Business. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Business paper right on time.

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Business’s name

Ocean Wide Trading Pty Ltd

Introduction and overview of the business

Ocean Wide Trading has been running for over a decade. This business deals with the importing and selling of fine furniture that has admirable quality at a considerate price. Ocean Wide Trading is a private company and is owned by three main shareholders. The owners of this business have gone through many risks with time and money consuming processes that have lead the success of this business. This business report covers and analyses the aspects of a business, coming across its finance, operations and marketing plans. It indicates an overall perception on how the business is run, its strengths and weaknesses and a lot more.

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Classification of business

Business Ownership/ Legal structure

The business is 40% owned by Johnny So. Another two shareholders hold the other 60% of the business. The legal structure of the business is therefore a proprietary (private) company, which has three shareholders who have limited liability protection

Prime Function

The main objectives that the owners wished to retain, was a higher amount of profit, % - 5% yearly, and to increase its turnover by 5% yearly.

Mission Statement

For Ocean Wide Trading to be a company that provides unique, top-range furniture, which satisfy customer’s desired expectations. They seek fair and responsible profit, enough for the company to stay healthy in the long run and also for compensating owners and investors for their money, effort and risk.

Their direct quote is

‘We plan to succeed in capitalizing our business so that our company will be nationally recognized as a business which provides high standard, exquisite furniture’.


Financial goals

Financial goals for the business include domestic expansion into various areas, increase and broadening of customers, a consistent increase in sales and profit each year, opening the letter of credit, and broadening the stock.

Personal goals

Personal goals of the ‘boss’ had included “eventually becoming a millionaire”, and also to increase in the use of technological advantages and modern applications of running the business.

Social goals

To be nationally recognized as a business, which provides high standard, exquisite furniture.

Products Or Services

The business’s main product is a wide range of timber goods i.e. - Furniture. These goods have been imported from the manufacturers, which is based overseas. This is because the supplied raw materials for the creation of these products are located

there and also because of the cheaper labor expenses of employees with required

craftsmanship, which can be found there. The semi- finished products are then bought off by Ocean Wide, and sold in the Australian market. This idea of importing from an overseas manufacturer has its complications but its further potential definitely surpasses its problems.

List of goods

- Dining Furniture

- Bedroom furniture

- Lounge furniture (etc.)

- Timber joinery doors

- Repair and Refinement (service)

Details of the production process or the service to be offered

The manufacturers execute the actual production. Ocean Wide Trading first orders this to the supplier through fax, email, or phone. The stock is then sent to Australia several weeks later by sea and then a truck are hired to pick up and deliver the container from the port. At delivered time, the employees of the business unload the container with all the furniture and stock them inside the warehouse. The stock is assembled, repaired if damaged, and refined if desired. A person then prices all the furniture as they please. When furniture is purchased, the delivery is also made by the business.

How the products will be distributed

The products are ordered by phone, fax, and email or in person and then a scheduled date and time is made for delivery of the product by truck. Sometimes when able, the customers take the product themselves to avoid delivery charges

Market Analysis

Target Market

The industry, in which this business is in, has a target market of adults, working men and women, usually with families. Ocean Wide Trading takes a step further in targeting medium to higher income earners and also directs its product to the 40 years and over market due to jokingly reasons that “ younger people, and mid-aged adults have no money!”

Size of each target market

The size of each target market has not been noticed, though the description above would hold about 60% of the marketable customers.


Competitor’s Name Corinthian Furniture (name unclassified)

Market Share Unknown, though rapid increase in recognition may change that.

Strengths As above question, the company produces well thought out designs and have a numerous amount of employees that deal with all the aspects in the maturity phase of the business. The company manufactures and sells the product in Australia and has recent marketing strategies that have given a positive appraisal to the company.

Products Are similar to Ocean Wide Trading’s products, in its furniture and doors.

Competitor analysis

Company Name Estimated Size (Approx.) Marketing Strategies Marketing Image

Hume DoorsCorinthian FurnitureBaltic Furniture 0 employeesBetween 0-50 employees0 Employees Magazine AdvertisementsLocal newspaper advertisements, pamphlets.Pamphlets and newspaper advertisements. Reliable quick and easily obtained.Good designs at reasonably low prices. Reliable, quality furniture.

SWOT analysis of the business


- Furniture still in great demand

- Uniqueness of products

- Hospitable service and has created regular customers

- Efficient business with minimum employees


- Marketing of product is weak

- Product price is of high standards

- Target market is too restricted


- Expansion of business

- New desirable designs in production

- Ability to broaden market


- Economic downfall

- Fact that timber will run out

- Increase in ‘modern furniture’

- New materials replacing the old

Promotional activity

Most of the furniture can be seen in the pamphlets or advertising in newspapers and furniture magazines. Each product directly viewed at the actual warehouse and displays of most of the products that can be inspected. The promotional strategy of word-of-mouth is also highly advantageous due to the type of market the business is directed at.

Projected expenditure on promotion

Approximately $50, 000 yearly.

Marketing Plan


The Target market is stated in the above questions though a more ideal marketable person for the business would be a person in their mid thirties on onwards who is employed and paid well, and has his/her own family. This person would want fine furniture combined with an old fashioned, appealing design, and the common bond between the business and the customer would be the appreciation of quality and lack of price constraints of the product.

The total numbers of the actual market is unknown, though an average of 0 customers a day can be estimated.


Purchases would vary as each customer looks for different types of furniture/doors, different designs, sizes, shapes etc. and thus the place, time and reason for their purchase are unnoticed to the business.

Customer trends � What are the customers looking for in the product?

Customers usually know what they want from pictures and or purchased products by friends that have been seen whilst over, what is aesthetic or wherever. They then come to the warehouse to browse specific furniture, e.g.- Bedside table, Grand chair, a study table etc. A whole range of these is presented to the customer. Customers expect a high standard price, but still in the reasonable range. Products are regularly on sale at all times in the business year. The customers also expect a sense of uniqueness and style that is clearly presented through inspection. This is then topped off with a standard warranty of years and easy money payments to suit the needs of the customer.

Technology Analysis

Projected expenditure on research and development

The business does not spend a great deal with research and development as the methods of working and operations now are quite efficient and effective. A comment was made that r & d will be performed once business reaches a post maturity time and/or when business seems to be decreasing in sales and profits.

Forecast - future sales, objectives and strategies to achieve them

Sales objectives of the business include to clear stock bought, and also to broaden stock imported by achieving the make them ‘popular’ to buy here. More detailed objectives would infer examples such as clearing 5 year old stock a. This can be conducted through implying sales onto unwanted products and or even by making a package deal for customers who are eager.

Financial Analysis

Plant and equipment, suppliers, costings

Name of item Supplier’s Name Estimated Cost ($)

Warehouse leaseForklift ()Company truck Kennard’sW.R ReliablesToyota 40,000 yearly0,000 X [10’s]5,000

Raw materials and suppliers

The furniture is all imported and thus no raw materials are really needed. The actual

products are supplied by ‘Piti in Butani’, which is an Indonesian company.


Employee details

There are six total staff members, with four working full-time. The number of Production staff is 6 and many of the staff works in several of the business’s functions, which further develop their skills and experience, and thus are more valuable. There are also advantages to this, as if a staff is absent, another staff member would be able to continue to function the required objectives.

Training and development programs

The business does not have a training program of any formal sort. The business mainly employs people who are known to have the right skills, experiences & qualifications for the job. Also, informal means of training, for example teaching the newly employed craftsman how to work and function the computer is there ways of training and development of the employee. Also, on-the-job-training, to help employees meet the needs & situation of the business.

Employee performance appraisal schedule

Method of appraisal includes monthly bonuses and/or non-monetary benefits such as voucher or business trips.

The frequency of appraisal depends solely on the business owner and how he is feeling and what he thinks. Though this may seem like an unlikely way of making decisions, it works effectively among the employees.

Details of any incentive schemes, bonuses, benefits

These are up to the boss, but consistent bonuses are given during times of increased work, over-time, increase of productivity and so on. Incentives include the overseas trips for business purposes and also pay rises at times. Usually an amount of time is needed before any type of promotion, and thus loyalty is valued greatly in the business.

Method of employee participation in decision-making

Employees are open to participate in decision making through direct speech and conversations, but the boundary of that idea is limited to where the employee works and for what field. I.e.- Craftsman, deliverer, secretary etc. The employer takes these decisions on a mental note and thus this informal means of suggestions is regular among the staff.


The goals of Ocean Wide Trading is to maintain and succeed its consistent increase in profits, and to also expand the business nationally, but still keeping the ‘personal relationship’ it has with its customers. Ocean Wide Trading is proud of its reputation of hospitable service and an exquisite, unique product, and hopes to attract more customers feel alike. The business has had great success financially, socially, and continues to be consistent in its benefits and profits each year. Also, it has been consistent with its idea, and in the several years of growth, it has surpassed the long-term goal made in its establishment phases.

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Nagpur Oranges

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Nagpur Oranges - The Nagpur Specialty

Oranges arranged in a Mondha

An arrangement unique to Nagpur Markets

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One of well known specialties of Nagpur is the world famous Nagpur orange, the cultivation of which in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra has brought indispensable glory to the region. The orange is cultivated in 80000 hectares area in Vidarbha with a total production of nearly 5 lakh tons. Nagpur orange in Nagpur district is cultivated in 0, 65 hectares area. There is an interesting story how the cultivation of Nagpur orange in this region started. The cultivation of Nagpur orange was tested for the first time as a kitchen garden plant during 186 by Late Shri. Raghujiraje Bhonsle and observed as a successful venture. Since then, its cultivation attained momentum year after year and by now, it is claimed to be one of the most remunerative potential foreign exchange earning crops of not only this region but also as one of the horticultural crops after mango and banana at national level.

A lot of work is being done at Nagpur in the field of Citrus Research at the National Research Centre for Citrus situated at Nagpur.

1. Problems paralysing the Nagpur orange industry

The range of problems affecting the Nagpur orange industry is highly. The prominent problems are

General neglect

Absence of sufficient low temperature (10-150C) for two weeks period of induction for stress and flowering

Scarcity of water for irrigation

Poor drainage due to fine texture of soils

Cultivation in some less suitable soils

Non-availability of disease free planting material

Wide use of roughlemon as a rootstock

Nutrient constraints

Irregular flowering

Incidence of blackfly (Kolshi), leaf miner and mites

Heavy infestation of Phytophthora causing root and foot rot

Presence of virus and virus like diseases

Improper handling without any post-harvest treatment leading to reduced shelf life of fruits

No systematic marketing

Considering the above problems faced by Nagpur orange industry, the necessity for establishment of a Research Organization was direly felt to develop the need based technologies which can provide scientific footage to the industry.

. Inception of National Research Centre for Citrus

Considering the variety of problems faced by Nagpur orange industry. Earlier, the efforts were made by ICAR to tackle the problem through the sponsored scheme on Citrus Die Back launched in 14. However, the Nagpur orange growing tracts in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra were left uncovered under this scheme. Chronologically, the following recommendations were made for the establishment of Research Centre on Citrus

· The task force appointed by the Ministry of Agriculture to investigate the problems of citrus decline in Nagpur area, visited the area from April 4 to 6, 180 and suggested for strengthening the research on citrus in this area.

· Dr. D.J. Hutchison, UNDP Consultant and an expert on ‘Citrus’, who was at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore for a period of three months strongly recommended that a Citrus Research Station should be established at Nagpur since this area is the most important for citrus production in India.

· A request was made by the Maharashtra Government to the Director General, ICAR to provide a Citrus Research Station at Nagpur.

· The Quinquennial Review Team of IIHR, Bangalore recommended that the work on important problems of citrus may be initiated in the main citrus growing belt of Nagpur area or some other area where suitable facilities can be created. The research work done in this region is likely to be more useful and applicable because the selection of problems will be relevant to the main citrus belt.

· The Director General, ICAR agreed for the establishment of a Research Station at Nagpur in the VI Plan period to tackle problems affecting citrus cultivation in the main citrus growing belt.

· The suitable land was selected at Nagpur for establishing a Central Horticultural Experiment Station by a Committee constituted by ICAR and Government of Maharashtra agreed to give 100 hectares of land for its establishment free of cost. In view of the QRT recommendations and broad projections made by the working group, the critical areas were identified with a hope to tackle them in a systematic way at the proposed Centre for Research on Citrus established during VII Plan.

· The Central Citrus Research Station at Nagpur was formally inaugurated by Shri. P.V. Narsimha Rao, the then Hon’ble Minister for Defence, Govt. of India on July 8,185 and the Centre started functioning from November , 185 with a skeleton staff.

· In order to undertake research on different aspects of citriculture, including fundamental and applied, the status of Citrus Research Station was raised to National Research Centre for Citrus from April 1, 186 in VII Plan with an outlay of Rs. 74.00 lakhs to meet the requirement of citrus industry as a whole.

. Mandate

· To undertake basic and applied research to develop technologies for improvement and increased productivity in citrus.

· To act as a repository of genetic resources and scientific information related to citrus

· To undertake research to develop technologies for better shelf life and utilization of citrus fruits considering domestic and export needs

· To act as a Centre of training in advanced research methodologies and technology upgradation in citrus

· To collaborate with relevant national and international organization/Govt. agencies for citrus research and technology dissemination

· To provide constancy services and undertake contract research to solve the problems of citrus industry

4. Objective

· Introduction and evaluation of germplasm from indigenous and exotic sources.

· Improvement of rootstocks with special reference to increase production, quality, dwarfing and tolerance/ resistance to drought, Phytophthora and nematodes.

· Clonal selection and improvement of Nagpur mandarin and acid lime for the better production, quality, seedlessness and less limonin content.

· To work out the macro and micro nutrient requirement for Nagpur mandarin and lime to establish leaf nutrient standards for sustained productivity.

· To undertake research on water management for water conservation, system of irrigation and critical water requirements for induction of flowering and optimum productivity.

· To standardize farming system based on Nagpur mandarin and acid lime.

· To undertake studies on weed control for standardizing most effective weedicide and time of application.

· To standardize technique for regulation of cropping with aid of growth substance.

· To undertake research on the incidence of important insects pests of Nagpur mandarin and their chemical control measures. Special emphasis will be given to integrate pest management comprising chemical, biological control and other cultural practice for citrus blackfly(Kolshi).

· To conduct research on fungal and viral diseases of Nagpur mandarin with special reference to gummosis(Phytophthora spp ), twig blight ( Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), tristeza and greening.

· To multiply and supply virus and nematode free plant material of Nagpur mandarin and acid lime.

· Studies on post-harvest technology with special reference to handling, packaging storage, post-harvest disease and processing including debittering of citrus juice.

· To work out techniques for waste utilization for extraction of oil, pectin and preparation of animal feed.

· To transfer the technologies involved/ standardized to the growers.

5. Technologies developed

The Centre has developed following technologies since its inception

5.1 Citrus Improvement

The presence of higher seeds/fruit, variation in maturity time, susceptibility of traditionally used rootstocks to Phytophthora and nematodes and absence of quality planting material are the major problems of crop improvement.

5.1.1 Clonal selection in Nagpur mandarin

Two clones, one with less seeded and another early maturing were identified in 15 year old orchard of Nagpur District which can later be utilized in large scale production.

5.1. Standardization of shoot tip grafting

Two grafting methods viz., inverted ‘T’ cut method and apical triangle cut method were attempted. Grafting success was more in apical triangle cut method (8.46%) compared to inverted ‘T’ cut method (.50%). An overall success of 6.7% was obtained from both the methods.

For accelerating the survival and growth of shoot tip grafts, the successful graft were double grafted(side grafted) on the vigorous, greenhouse grown rough lemon and Rangpur lime seedlings. Grafting success was more in rough lemon compared to Rangpur lime. A total of 15 side grafts from STG plants were produced till now which are being maintained in insect proof screenhouse for indexing and further multiplication.

5. Citrus Production

The production technologies consisting of balanced fertilization by developing leaf nutrient to increase the fertilizer efficiency, irrigation scheduling and water requirement and crop regulation need to be developed. Information on land capability parameters will further enhance the utility of developed technologies. In order to economise the land use, technology has to be supplemented with suitable rootstock and compatible intercrops.

5..1 Leaf sampling technique

The information on leaf sampling technique or Nagpur mandarin and acid lime is a pre-requisite to develop leaf nutrient standards. The age of leaf, position of leaf on shoot and number of leaves to be sampled decide the reliability of collected sample. The studies have shown that 6 to 8 month old leaves of Nagpur mandarin for Ambia flush and 5 tp 7 month old leaves for Mrig flush taken from sample any position between nd to 4th leaf on a shoot with a minimum size of 0 leaves covering % trees of an orchard were ideal for leaf analysis.

In acid lime, to 5 month old leaves during Mrig flush either from nd of rd or 4th leaf from non-fruiting shoot can be sampled for foliar analysis.

5.. Nutrient constraints of mandarin orchards

Survey of 178 mandarin orchards from 101 villages covering an area of 17,7 ha from Kalameshwar, Katol, Narkhed, Ramtek, Hingna and Saoner tehsils(Nagpur district) indicated N,P and Zn as major nutritional problems. These nutrients are required to constitute the part of the regular fertilizer schedule of Nagpur mandarin.

5.. Optimum leaf nutrient level vis-a-vis fruit yield

5...1Through Survey

An optimum leaf nutrient level was worked out to be N .-.4%, P 0.07-0.10%, K 1.18-1.56%, Ca 1.-1.51%, Mg 0.48-0.67%, Fe 110-1 PPM, MN -4 PPM, Cu 8-15 PPM and Zn 18- PPM to obtain the fruit yield of 66-70 fruits/tree through a suitable multivariate quadratic response model. These limits of leaf nutrients may be effectively practiced for a sustained productivity of Nagpur mandarin orchards.

5...Through fertilizer response studies

The studies on response of differential doses of N from 00 to 100 g /plant and P from 100 to 600g /plant through bivariate quadratic equation indicated optimum of N as .4% using rough lemon rootstock and .41% using Rangpur lime. While optimum P was observed as 0.11% and 0.085% using rough lemon and Rangpur lime rootstock, respectively.

5..4 Nitrogen and potassium requirement of Nagpur mandarin

Considering the wide scale deficiency of N and role of K in development of fruit quality, the studies on their exact requirement will be an important step for working out the balanced fertilizer schedule. The works conducted at two locations in Typic Chromustert soil showed optimum dose of N as 600g/plant and KO as 00g/plant. The keeping quality of Nagpur mandarin was also improved by applying 00g/ KO/tree.

5..5 Utilisation of K at critical growth stages of Nagpur mandarin

Potassium is considered as a key nutrient in order to maintain the quality of Nagpur mandarin. Therefore its application at right time is very important to harness the efficacy of application. This is only possible when dynamics of potassium use at critical growth stages are known. The maximum K (1.5%) accumulated in leaf at fruit set stage. After this stage, 1.6% of K accumulated in leaf, was utilised upto fruit development stage, 11.% upto colour break stage and another 5.% was used upto fruit harvest stage. Such an information is necessary to adjust the time of application of potassic fertilizers.

5..6 Causes of irregular flowering in Nagpur mandarin

The flowering in Nagpur mandarin in the absence of low temperature is mediated through soil water deficit stress, the success of which is dependent upon the nature of surface and sub-surface soil. The soil properties such as high clay content, mainly concentrated in sub-surface, low free lime content, coarse fragments and sand content were found conducive for irregular flowering behavior of Nagpur mandarin. These properties account for lesser moisture depletion during water stress period, with the result, the required quantum of stress is seldom obtained and plants flower erratically.

5..7 Use of growth retardants in irregular flowering orchards

The only remedy possible in irregular flowering orchards is to stop the vegetative growth with the help of growth retardants which otherwise continue due to constant moisture supply from sub-surface layers. Application of Paclobutrazol @ 18g/plant at the time of imposition of water stress was found very effective in inducing good floral response.

5..8 Compatibility of different rootstocks

In order to identify suitable rootstocks for Nagpur mandarin studies have shown, compatible bud union with two strains of Rough lemon (Tirupati & Chase), five strains of Rangpur lime (Tirupati, Gonicoppal, Coorg, Grabstan & Narana ). Different strains of rough lemon, Rangpur lime, Cleopatra mandarin, Sour orange, Troyer citrange, Carrizo citrainge and trifoliate orange showed early flowering response in the third year only. The dwarfing nature of Trifoliate orange was observed for the last pre-bearing years. The bud union of acid lime using Cleopatra mandarin rootstock (Tirupati) was not observed smooth. The nutrient accumulation pattern further revealed Rangpur lime (Brazillian) as an avid absorber of potassium.

5.. Root CEC as a marker for vigour of citrus rootstocks

The root CEC was observed as an effective parameter as a marker for evaluation of vigour of different citrus rootstocks on the basis of relationship between root cation exchange capacity and nutrient uptake pattern by different citrus rootstocks. Such an information will prove very useful in pre-evaluation of rootstocks at nursery stage itself. The root CEC further acted as an index for ranking the salinity tolerance

5..10 Nitrogen fertigation response of acid lime

The height, girth and tree volume of Acid lime plants in 100% fertigation of recommended dose were better than either 60% or 80% N fertigation or 100% band placement.

5..11 Performance of Citrus based intercrops

The soyabean crop was found most suitable intercrop followed by pigeon pea and cow pea from point of view of nutritional requirement and incidence of insect pests.

5..1 Chemical weed control

The maximum weed control efficiency (4.%) was observed using Diuron kga.i/ha as pre-emergence herbicide. Two applications of Diuron at an interval of 10 days controlled the weeds upto 00 days. The weed control efficiency in clay soil was more than clay-loam soil type. The weeds were observed to remove 46.6 kg N, 4.1 kg P and 75.06 kg K from one hectare area in Nagpur mandarin orchard.

5..1 Control of fruit drop in Nagpur mandarin

The periodicity of fruit drop indicated out of total fruit drop, 74.% was of fruitlet size ( pea size fruits) which occurred during March followed by 17.8% summer drop during April to July with ultimate retention of 6.6% at harvest.

The treatment of ,4-D 0 PPM plus Benomyl 1000 PPM controlled the drop of pea sized fruits in March. Two sprays of GA, 15 PPM plus Benomyl 1000 PPM plus urea 1% controlled the drop of marble size fruits upto July. Another one spray of above treatment further reduced the pre-harvest fruit drop.

5. Citrus Protection

Insect pests, nematodes and diseases pose a serious threat to citrus plantation. Citrus blackfly leading to ‘ Kolshi’ and psylla causing severe flush-drohp, Phytophthora caused diseases, twig blight and also citrus nematodes are in particular cause of serious concern.

5..1 Insect pest control

5..1.1 Citrus blackfly (Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby)

Citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby is an extremely serious insect pest of citrus. Nymphs and adults secrete copious honeydew on which sooty moulds grow leading to the nuisance of ‘Kolshi’.

5..1.1.1 Chemical control

Foliar sprays either with monocrotophos 1ml or phosphamidon 0.7 ml or acphat 0.8 ml or dimethoate ml/l of water at 50% egg hatching stage or first instar nymphae stage of the pest on the under surface of leaf, twice at 15 days interval during the three flushing periods, i.e. Ambia ( Feb.-Mar), Mrig ( Jun.-Jul.), and hasta ( Oct.-Nov.) were found to check the pest effectively.

5..1.1. Biological control

Work on Integrated Pest Management has been taken up at this Centre. Predominant natural enemies of citrus blackfly like the parasitoid Encarsia opulenta, E. bennetti and Eretmocerus gunturiensis and the predators Mallada boninensis and Serangium parcesetosum have been indentified.

5..1.1. Mass Multiplication

A technique of multiplication of blackfly predator M. boninensis has been standardized to maintain a modest culture of 000-000 eggs, 1500-000 larvae and 00-00 adults at a given time in the laboratory. The predator M. boninensis has been released in the farmer’s field at 5 locations in Central India and and is being assessed for its performance.

5..1. Citrus Psylla( Diaphorima Citri kuwayama)

Citrus psylla is a sporadic but serious pest. Both nymphs and adults cause excessive desapping of the new flush resulting into ‘flush drop’ which directly affects the yield.

5..1..1 Chemical control

Spraying with phosphamidon 0.ml or quinaphos 1ml or thiometan 0.8 ml/l of water and bud burst stage gave knock down effect. It is to be repeated after a weeks period for effective control of the pest.

5..1.. Biological control

The parasitisation of the citrus by a hymenopteran parasitoid Tamari radiata was studied and it was found to be 0-50% in general and as high as 0% in certain fields during mid February to the end of April. The parasitoid T. radiata is being multiplied on psylla nymphus maintained on Citrus and Murraya seedlings having staggered flush in cage house.

5..1. Citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton)

It is the pest of nurseries and young plant. Plant growth is severely harmpered. It helps the spread of mealy bug and citrus canker. Foliar sparys are monocrotophos (0.06%) or quinalphos (0.05%) or phosalone (0.05%) given at 10 days interval as soon as the infestation was noticed, checked the incidence of leaf miner.

5..1.4 Citrus mite (Eatetranichus orientalis Klein)

The pest feeds on the upper surface of leaves and on the fruits casuing pitting and unpleasant rusty-grey spots on fruits. Such fruits loose the market value for effective control of citrus mite, dicofol (0.05%) spray followed by wettable sulphur (0.05%) at weekly interval were found best.

5.. Citrus Nematodes

5...1. Survey for Plant parasitic nematodes

Citrus nematode Tylenchulus semipenetrans was observed to be the most prominent in 7.7% orchards. The population intensity in soil ranged from 8-880 nematodes larvae/50 cc soil and in roots from -00 nematodes/gram roots.

5... Seasonal and spatial distribution of citrus nematode

The studies on seasonal distribution of citrus nematode showed the occurence of maximum population in January and February months. The maximum concentration of citrus nematode was observed at 0cm soil depth vertically and 100 cm radially from trunk which coincides with the zone of maximum feeder root concentration.

5.. Control of Phytophthora caused diseases

5...1. Survey for ocurrence of Phytophthora diseases

The survey of citrus nurseries and orchards in Central India has shown that the diseases viz. gummosis, foot and root rot caused by Phytophthora sp. such as P. parasitica, P. nicotianca var. nicotianae and P. citorphthora are prevalent. In citrus nurseries, Phytophthora population was above than threshold level of 1-6 propagules/c.c of soil causing 15-5% plant mortality. In orchards, population recorded upto 450 propagules/cc soil causing steady losses of feeder roots expect in the well drained soils. Phytophthora survived throughout the year in irrigated orchards and .66 propagules/cc of soil were found to cause disease.

P. citrophthora was found more virulent and became active at 0-5 0 C whereas P. parasitica and P. nicotianae var. nicotianae was active upto 5 0C. In Nagpur district, 61.% isolates of P. parasitica were A1 type. In Amravati district 4 isolates were A and two of A1 type.

5... Control of Phytophthora diseases

Two sprays + drench treatment either by Aliette (.5g/l) or Ridomil MZ-7(.75g/l) covering the whole plant canopy and basin of affected plant at 40 days interval from onset of monsoon provided significant control.

5.4 Post Harvest technology

Post-harvest fruit losses are enormous due to improper method of harvesting, unscientific handling, packaging and transport of fruits to the distant markets which are the major problems.

5.4.1 Handling of Nagpur mandarin

The mechanized process of sorting, washing, wax coating and size grading was standardized on 1 ton per hour capacity packing line. The stay-fresh high shine wax (.5%) alongwith Bavistin (4000 PPM) gave desired shine and decay control upto weeks in case of healthy fruits stored at ambient condition.

5.4. Storage of Nagpur mandarin

For long term refrigerated storage, 6-70C temperature and 0-5% RH were found most suitable without any chilling injury. The tempearature at 40C resulted in chilling damages and greenish yellow fruit developed the injury symptoms earlier than deep orange fruits due to advanced maturity.

5.4. Shrink wrapping

The shrink wrapping (individual fruit as tray over-wrap) of Nagpur mandarin in cryovac films ( D55 and BDF 001) and polythene resulted in retention of natural freshness and flavour upto weeks at 0-50C under ambient condition. The decay was minimises with Bavistin (4000 PPM) treatment before wrapping.

5.4.4 Maturity standards for Nagpur mandarin

Studies on standardization of maturity indices for Ambia crop of Nagpur mandarin revealed that fruits having minimum TSS of 10% and TSS/acidity ratio of more than 14 can be harvested because of their desired quality for marketing.

5.4.5 Degreening

The continuous flow ethylene degreening process was standardized for Nagpur mandarin and degreening chamber with 1 ton fruit holding capacity has been designed. The yellowish-orange fruits with green spots could be degreened in 48 hours at 6-80C temperature and 0-5% RH at nearly 5ppm ethylene concentration.

5.4.6 Packaging

The packaging containers of corrugated fibre board (50x0x0Cm) were designed and packaging method standardized in vented polythene substituting the rice straw which is used in conventional wooden packing. These corrugated boxes were found suitable for distant transport i.e. from Nagpur to Delhi and had sufficient strength to withstand long term refrigerated storage at 0-5% RH.

Operation on mechanical packing line

5.4.7 Pre-cooling for shelf life of Nagpur mandarin

Among various pre-cooling methods tried, the forced-air cooling was the most suitable method for Nagpur mandarin packed in vented corrugated boxes. Pre-cooling at 6-70C with 0-5% RH reduced losses during refreigerated storage. Pre-cooling unit with one half ton fruit holding capacity has been developed for forced-air cooling. Post-harvest losses during transport

Inadequate orchard management, fruit handling, packing and transport conditions were the main factors for high post-harvest losses which vary from 18-% when transported by truck and 0-4% by train upto Delhi market from farm level. Stem end rot caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri, sour rot caused by Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium and Aspergillus rots were the major diseases associated with post-harvest losses of Nagpur mandarin during transport.

5.4.8. Management of post-harvest losses

Management of post-harvest losses in Nagpur manadrin to minimise the decay has been developed by reducing the pathogenic inoculum from orchards through three preharvest fungicidal sprays at 15 days interval before harvest. Carbendazim MBC was effective in curing more than 70% decay upto weeks. similarly the application of these chemicals as post-harvest treatment was also equally effective. Pre and post harvest applications of these treatments was excellent in curbing upto 80% decay for three weeks storage at ambient condition with permitted residue level.

5.4. Colour development in Nagpur mandarin

To have uniform colour and recuced decay losses in Nagpur mandarin during storage of fruits, two applications of ethephon (00ppm) with calcium acetate (1%) and carbendazim (500ppm) at colour break stage were found effective in inducing early development as well as reducing the storage losses.

6. Research Projects in progress

The following projects are in progress at this Centre;

6.1 Management of Nagpur mandarin decline in Central India

6. Introduction , evaluation and improvement of citrus

· National citrus repository of NRCC

· Production of disease free Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) plants by STG

· Production of disease free Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) plants by STG

6. Management of optimum and quality production in citrus

· Integrated management of Nutrient and water in Nagpur mandarin through drip irrigation

· Integrated management of water and nutrient in Acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) through drip irrigation system

· Evaluation of citrus rootstock strains for optimum growth and productivity of Nagpur mandarin and Acid lime

· Drainage studies in Nagpur mandarin

· Induction and regulation of flowering in Nagpur mandarin and Acid lime

· Standardization of package of practice for export orientedd production of Nagpur mandarin

6.4 Integrated management of insect pests, diseases and nematodes of citrus

· Integrated Pest management in citrus

· Integrated management of citrus nematode

· Integrated management of post-harvest disease of Nagpur mandarin

· Integrated management of citrus canker and greening diseases

6.5 Development of post-harvest technologies for citrus

· Standardization of harvesting and handling technology for export and domestic market of Nagpur mandarin

· Standardization of harvesting, handling and storage technique for Acid lime and Sweet orange

6.6 Ad-hoc Projects

· Identification of suitable soils for sustained productivity of Nagpur mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)

· National Network Project on Phytophthora disease of Horticultural crops -Citrus (Phytonet)

· National Network on drip irrigation system for perinnial horticultural crops - Citrus

· Studies on Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and search for its mild strain for cross protection technology

7. NRCC publications and services

7.1 NRCC - a milestone Rs. 100.00 $ .5

7. A Decade of NRCC Rs. 800.00 $ 0


· Nagpur Santrychi Sudharit Lagwad (Marathi) Rs. 0.00 $ 0.75

· Nagpur mandarin cultivation Rs. 0.00 $ 0.75

· Handling of Nagpur mandarin Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Nagpur Santre ki Bagwani (Hindi) Rs. 0.00 $ 0.75

· Nutrient management in Nagpur mandarin and acid lime Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Propagation of Nagpur mandarin Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Germplasm of Citrus Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Flowering problems in Nagpur mandarin Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Evaporative cool chamber for storage of Nagpur mandarin fruits Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Phytophthora diseases of citrus and their management Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Management of post harvest diseases of Nagpur mandarin Rs. 50.00 $ 1.5

· Insect pests of Nagpur mandarin and their management Rs.75.00 $ 1.87

· Santra Phalachi Todni va Hatalni (Marathi) Rs.50.00 $ 1.5

· Multiplication of Chrysopid Predator (Mallada boninensis) Rs.50.00 $ 1.5


· Fertiliser requirement of Nagpur mandarin Rs. 15.00 $ 0.7

· Pest management in Nagpur mandarin Rs. 15.00 $ 0.7

· Leaf and Soil sampling technique in Nagpur mandarin Rs. 0.00 $ 0.50

· and Acid lime

· Save citrus plants from canker Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· Drip irrigation for citrus Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· Marketing of Nagpur mandarin Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· Citrus Nematode Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· STG - a technique for disease free planting Rs.0.00 $ 0.50

· material of Nagpur mandarin

· Nagpuri santare main lagne waale keet tatha unka niyantran Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· (Hindi)

· Nagpur Santryavaril Kid va Niyantran (Marathi) Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· Nagpur Santryasathi Khatachya Matra(Marathi) Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· Nagpuri santare kee Bagwani mein urwarkon kee

· awashyakata (Hindi) Rs.15.00 $ 0.7

· Limbu Vargiya Phal jhadana Khaira Rogapasun Rs. 15.00 $ 0.7

· Vachava (Marathi)

· Limbu Vargiya Phal jhadansathi Thibak Sinchan (Marathi) Rs. 15.00 $ 0.7


· NRCC Citrus Newsletter

· Vol. I. No. 1. 16 Rs.100.00 $ .5

· Vol. I. No. . 16 Rs.100.00 $ .5

· Vol II. No. 1. 17 Rs.100.00 $ .5

· Vol.II. No. .17 Rs.100.00 $ .5

· Vol.II. No. 17 Rs.100.00 $ .5

· Vol.II. No. 4 17 Rs.110.00 $ .75


· Leaf and Soil analysis Rs. 00.00 $ 5.0 (each)

· Scientists field visit Rs. 00.00 $ 7.5

· + transport

· Inf. to consultants/visit Rs.5000.00 $15

· Disease identification/sample Rs. 150.00 $.75

· Training to farmers per day Rs. 100.00 $.5

· Identification/sample for insect pest damages Rs. 100.00 $.5

· Soil and Plant testing for nematodes/sample Rs. 100.00 $.5

· Foreigners visit to the centre As per ICAR guidelines

8. Future strategies

The following future strategies are perceived for overall improvement of Nagpur orange industry

8.1 Citrus improvement/Genetic resources

· Collection and evaluation of germplasm of mandarins from indigenous and exotic sources for desired horticultural traits and processing qualities

· Introduction and evaluation of indigenous and exotic rootstocks

· Improvement of commercial cultivars of Nagpur orange through clonal selection, nucellar seedling selection and mutation breeding for desirable horticultural and processing characteristics

· Improvement of rootstocks through hybridization for tolerance to salinity/drought and resistance/ tolerance to Phytophthora and nematodes.

8. Citrus Production

· Integrated nutrient management studies by developing leaf nutrient indices as ready recknor to diagnose the fertilizer requirement

· Development of fertigation technique for fertilizer use efficiency and better monetary returns

· Integrated water management studies to work out the water requirement at different stages of growth for optimum utility of water

· Evaluation of high density planting of Nagpur orange to increase the productivity per unit area

8. Citrus Protection

· Development of Forecasting models for the outbreak of insect pests and pathogens

· Determination of the role of insect pests, pathogens and nematodes in Citrus decline

· Biological control of major insect pests, pathogens and nematodes

· Diagnosis, mapping and control of virus and virus like diseases in Nagpur orange orchards

8.4 Post-harvest technology

8.4.1. Harvesting and handling

· Development of commercial grade standards

· Development and refinement of techniques for mechanized handling of Nagpur orange from export potential point of view including the economics of developed techniques

· Studies on biological control and physical therapy for post-harvest disease control

· Evaluation and standardization of technique of shrink wrapping

· Standardization of technique of controlled atmosphere storage

8.4. Citrus processing

· Development of tools, materials and methods for feasible and economically viable method of debittering without affecting natural qualities

· Development of method for preservation of natural qualities alongwith suitable consumer packages as a viable alternative to synthetic soft drinks

· Standardization of method for preparation of concentrate with natural qualities and minimum bitterness

· Development of viable processes for extraction of colour pigments, flavonoids etc. from citrus processing waste

The History Of Nagpur City

The present city was founded in the early 18th century by Bhakt Buland, a Gond prince of the kingdom of Deogad in the Chhindwara district. Seeing the advantage of civilized life in Delhi, he started to build Nagpur as his new capital. His successor Chand Sultan continued the work. On Chand Sultans death in 17, disputes regarding succession arose and Raghuji Bhonsle, the Maratha governor of Berar, helped to restore the elder son to the throne. As the dissentions continued, Raghuji Bhonsle again intervened in 174, and the control of Nagpur slowly passed on from the Gonds to the Marathas. It became the capital of the Bhonsles.

With the Bhonsle dynasty came the vast class of cultivators in Vidarbha. Raghujis successors lost some territories to the Peshwas of Pune and the Nizam of Hyderabad. In 180, Bhonsles (along with their allies Scindias [Shinde] of Gwalior) at Assaye and Argaon (Argaum). In 1811 Pindaris attacked Nagpur. Bhonsles again lost to the British in 1817 and Nagpur came under British influence. In 185 Raghuji III died without an heir to his kingdom. As a result, the city lapsed into British control under Lord Dalhousies Doctrine of Lapse. { This policy was one of the reasons which led to the Indian War of Independence [Sepoys Mutiny as referred to by the British] in 1857}

In 1861, Nagpur became the capital of the Central Provinces. The advent of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (GIP) in 1867 spurred its development as a trade centre. After Indian independence, Nagpur became the capital of Madhya Bharat state (C.P. and Berar). In 160, the marathi majority Vidarbha region was merged with the new state of Maharashtra and Nagpur was designated the second capital of Maharashtra state, alternating with Mumbai (Bombay) as the seat of the Maharashtra state legislature.

Source Encyclopaedia Britannica

Following is the brief timeline chart of history of Nagpur.

10th Century A.D. -The name Nagpur appears for first time on record

Early 18th century A.D. - Nagpur city founded by the Gond king Bakht Buland of Devgad. He founded the city by joining the twelve small hamlets formerly known as Rajapur Barasa or Barasta

? Nagpur becomes the capital of the Bhonsles

176 Nagpur burnt in 176 and again partially burnt in 1811 by the Pendharis

1817 The battle of Sitabuldi & Nagpur fought which secured British influence in these territories

185 Nagpur was incorporated into the British territory.

1854 Mr. Mansel takes charge of Nagpur as the first commissioner

1861 Nagpur city becomes the capital of Central Provinces

1867 First train steams out of the city

101 C.P. Club founded

111 The Hitavada a leading english daily launched

11 Foundation stone of Vidhan Sabha laid

1 Nagpur University founded

14 Gondwana Club founded, Nav Bharat a leading Hindi daily launched

147 AIR founded

150 Nagpur made capital of M.P. state

156 Dr. Ambedkar converts thousands of dalits to Buddhism at Deeksha Bhoomi

160 Nagpur passed onto Maharashtra State

The Battle of Sitabuldi

When you pass in front of Nagpur Railway Station via Kasturchand Park, you will notice a high ground which is known as Sitabuldi Fort. have you ever thought that just about 180 years back i.e. on Nov. 6,7, 1817, a fierce battle known as battle of Sitabuldi was fought on this high ground between the Bhosla forces and the British. This battle was also a turning point for the relation between British and Bhosalas and also was prelude to the downfall of Bhosla empire.

The East India company came to India for trade, but when they found the prevailing situation in India, they took advantage and started gathering power. They had their main bases at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay.

During 1th century Matathas could not see that East India company gaining supremacy. The Britishers were also preparing to suppress Marathas i.e. Peshawas at Pune, Scindhias at Gwalior, the Holkars at Indore and the Bhosalas at Nagpur, during the second Anglo Maratha war the British succeeded and annexed some territories of Marathas. At that time RaghuJi II was the ruler of Nagpur, who rejected the terms of defence treaty with British. This annoyed the British. RaghuJi II died in 1816 and his son Parsogi succeeded, But could not survive for long. His cousin Appasaheb was chosen to be the ruler. He was liked by the British as he accepted the defence treaty with them. He also gave subsidies and sent military contingents against Pindaries. as per their desire. But gradually AppaJi Bhosale consolidated his position by October 1817 and showed indifference towards British. He also joined hands with Peshwas of Pune who were fighting against British. The Peshwas appointed AppaJi as Senapati of Maratha Armies. AppaJi celebrated this appointment with great pomp and show by firing gun salutes, on Nov 4, 1817.

This act was of great annoyance to the British. They had their residency at the present old Morris College with Mr. Jenkins as the resident. The British troops were on training in area of Telenkhedi. The Bhosala forces were within the walled city of Nagpur which was beyond Shukrawar Darwaja and Buty Darwaja. At that time Sitabuldi fort was only a hillock consisting of two knolls and nothing more.

The tension was mounting between Appasaheb Bhosale and the British and both started war preparations. Appasaheb Bhosale displayed his show of strength around residency thus creating alarm in the minds of people.

Lt. Col. Hopton Scot who was in command, ordered his troops to occupy defences on the twin knolls of Sitabuldi overlooking the residency. He also sent messages to Gen. Doveton to come immediately with his force.

The forces of British and the Bhosalas were as follows

Bhosalas 1,000 horse cavalry, 8000 infantry of whom ,500 were Arabs held in Very high esteem and 6 field guns.

British 1800 troops all told, with four, 6 pounder guns which included battalions of Madras Native infantry, companies of native infantry, troops of sixth Bengal native horse cavalry.

On the night of Nov 5, 1817, both sides got busy in preparing for the battle. British troops took defences on the Sitabuldi hill. Lt. Col. Scott himself had his command post on the bigger hill with 0 Madras Native Infantry and residency body guard troops. From this position he could have good command and control of the smaller hill as well as area around the hill.

Capt. Sadler with 4th Native Infantry and two guns took position on the smaller hill. Capt. Fitzgerald was kept as reserve with troop of Bengal native horse cavalry in the area of residency. He was only to move on orders from Lt. Col. Scott,

Maratha troops were deployed all around residency. Arab troops and some Maratha troops under Manbhatt Upadya took Position on the eastern side of smaller hill in area of Meena Bazar with some guns. Maratha horse cavalry was in the area of present Dhantoli, Maharaj Bag and along Nag river.

On Nov 6, 1817 Arab troops of Appasaheb Bhosala opened fire on the smaller hill which was returned by British guns Capt. Sadler was killed by the fire and Capt. Charles Worth took the command .

The exchange of fire was going on and Capt. Charles got wounded and Capt. McDonald took charge. As there was no cover on the smaller hill the British suffered heavy casualties. Capt. McDonald ordered his troops make wall of grain bags and took position behind this wall.

On the 7th morning Maratha troops and Arabs started moving towards the smaller hill and under the leadership of Manbhatt Upadhya they captured and occupied the smaller hill and hoisted saffron flag of Maratha.

In this battle Lt. Clark and Dr. Mavint of British were killed. This created a lot of commotion amongst the British . Arabs were preparing to launch an attack on the bigger hill, although the British troops were holding the bigger hill with determination.

At this juncture, the Capt. Fitzgerald saw that the whole British forces would be soon destroyed unless some drastic step could be taken.

He launched his four troops of Bengal native cavalry direct at the Maratha principal mass of cavalry scattered them like whirlwind and captured their guns.

Capt. Fitzgerald was not to move without orders, but his devoted and generous disobedience gave Col. Scott the opportunity to summon his infantry to a supreme effort as animated by the glorious example the British troops moral was boosted and they charged with the bayonets from the bigger hill and cleared the smaller hill.

At this time there was a great explosion at the smaller hill in which Arabs suffered heavy casualties. This also caused great con- fusion in Maratha troops and they withdrew and Marathas lost the battle.

In this battle Arab troops under Manbhatt fought very bravely but the lack of concerted action and Appasaheb Bhosales vacillation were mainly responsible for the defeat of the disorganised army.

Unfortunately in this war Appasaheb Bhosale proved to be a coward and in the defeat acted most disgracefully. The British would have lost the battle but for the brave and gallant attack of Capt. Fitzgerald.

After this battle of Sitabuldi which was the turning point in the history of Bhosalas within a month Nagpur was captured and on the 0th of Dec. 1817 the union jack was hoisted on the Bhosala palace.

In this battle of Sitabuldi, British casualties were - 14 officers and troops killed and many wounded. On the Maratha side equal number of casualties were suffered.

-By Lt. Col. Pratap Jog (Retd)

Geography and Statistics of Nagpur City

Location 1degree 0 N7 degree 0 E

Population 16,4,757 (as per 11 census)4,00,000 (unofficial estimate as of 17)8,45,45 (male)7,76,58 (female)6,458 (male literate)5,46,51 (female literate)

Altitude 47.5-05 meters above sea level. (00-1000 ft)

Area 0 sq. kms.

Mother tongue (Approx.. percentages) Marathi - 50%Hindi - 40%Others - 10%

Rainfall per year 1,4 mm

Central Government Offices at Nagpur City

ACCOUNTANT GENERAL (A&E)Mah. Civil Lines,Nagpur-lPh.56141/46

ACCOUNTANT GENERAL (General) Civil Lines,Nagpur-lPh.56141/46

AKASHVANI (ALL INDIA RADIO) Civil Lines,Nagpur-lPh,511

ALL INDIA SOIL & LAND USE SURVEY(MIN. OF AGRI) Near CPWD Katol RoadColony,West High Court Rd.Civil Lines, Nagpur- 1Ph, 5

ANTHROPOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA 11,Seminary Hills, Nagpur-6Ph,541


ATOMIC ENERGY DEPT,(ATOMIC MINERALS DIVN.) Bungalow No.l5,Civil Lines,Nagpur-l. Ph. 5648


CENTRAL BOARD OF WORKERS EDUCATION 1400 , W. H. COURT Road,Gokulpeth , Nagpur- 10Ph . 511



















Nagpur enjoys excellent educational facilities, English, Hindi & Marathi medium schools of good repute are available for all classes of people. The general standard of education in Nagpur is of very high order. It is relatively easy to get admissions in primary as well as secondary schools. Nagpur University is one of the oldest in the country and was founded in the year 1. Various Colleges and Institutes affiliated to the Nagpur University offer education in all necessary faculties like science, Commerce, Engineering, Management, Agriculture, Arts etc. The city has got 6 Engineering Colleges and Medical Colleges. Due to excellent educational facilities available in the city, well qualified and trained professionals are readily available for various industries & commercial centers in and around Nagpur.

Commerce at Nagpur City

Direct Taxes 8- By Mr T.S. Rawel

CIDCO - City & Industrial Development Corporation of Maharashtra Limited, Meghdoot Project

CONCOR - Container Corporation of India, Nagpur. The Dry Port at Nagpur City

Exports from Nagpur City

VED - Vidharba Economic Development - A movement

VIA - Vidharba Industries Association

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Saturday, January 28, 2012

Alcohol on the Human Body

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Alcohol on the Human Body

Alcoholism is an illness involving the excessive use of alcoholic beverages, whether it’s a can of beer or other drinks such as vodka, and whiskey etc. It often affects a lot of people and their families. I will discuss the symptoms of alcoholism and the effects of alcoholism. My conclusion defines the treatment of the serious disease.

Alcoholism has often been thought of as a symptom of a psychological or social problem, or as a learned, behavior to cope with the everyday problems of people’s lives. More recently alcoholism has become a recognized disease of its own. Alcoholism usually develops over a period of a few years. Early symptoms include spending an excessive amount of limited income on alcohol. The availability of the alcohol influences the person’s choice of friends and the things that they do. Alcohol becomes used as more of a relaxer than as a casual beverage. At first, the alcoholic may have a high tolerance of alcohol, drinking more and showing less effect than other drinkers. Alcohol begins to be more important than the person’s relationships, work, or even their health. The person progresses by losing control over his drinking and is not able to control his habit. He drinks again to avoid the effects of a hangover.

The effects on major organ systems include a wide range of digestive disorders such ulcers, and inflammation of the pancreas. The nervous system can also be permanently damaged. Blackouts, hallucinations, and extreme tremors may occur to the person as a direct result of drinking alcohol. Studies have shown that heavy or even moderate drinking during pregnancy can cause serious damage to the unborn child. This is known as fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol effects.

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About 10 percent of all the adult drinkers in the United States are considered alcoholics or they have some sort of drinking problems. The consumption of alcohol is

currently raising the United States and other countries like the U.S.S.R. and some of the Europeans countries. There is also an increase of alcohol related problems in other nations, including the Third World (www.gmu.edu/fascstaff/faculty/1-1/alcohsm.html).

Specialized treatment facilities within general or psychiatric hospitals are rapidly increasing in number. Earlier and better treatment has led to higher recovery rates. In addition to physical complications and withdrawal symptoms, treatment involves counseling and group therapy. Also sometimes drugs such as antabuse can be used to treat alcoholism. Antabuse is a drug that produces a violent intolerance for alcohol as long as the substance remains in the body and is sometimes used after withdrawal (www.alcoholism.about.com/library/faq/blquestion1.html). The annual numbers of deaths related to excessive drinking exceed 7,000 in the United States alone. Economic costs related to alcoholism are at least $100 billion a year (Donatelle 6).

The following facts should help describe alcoholism such a very serious disease, not be taken lightly. This disease can be completely avoided if a person never picks up a drink.

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Friday, January 27, 2012


If you order your cheap essays from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on hawiia. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality hawiia paper right on time.

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Hawaii As our plane started to descend, I began to see the beauty of this tropical island. The first view I saw was the flowing clear water below me. A few hundred more feet closer to the ground, the island of Oahu became more distinct. Palm trees appeared to surround the airport. I finally made it to possibly the most envied island in the world. I have been told many stories about Hawaii, but nothing compared to my first impression. The smell of the freshness was overwhelming! Everywhere I looked I saw a new species of flower. Soft, comfortable colors were everywhere. The feel of the atmosphere brought content to the first few hours in an unfamiliar state. Everyone around was so relaxed and was the friendliest people who I have ever met. The next step was to find the hotel we were going to stay at for the next nine days. When we reached the hotel, one thing that I noticed was that there were not walls in the lobby. It was like a vast patio porch, very incredible. The breeze felt like the first day of summer in Michigan. The room we were assigned to stay in had a spectacular view of the innocent Pacific Ocean. The following morning I woke up and ventured out on the balcony took a deep breath and smelled nothing but the refreshing scent of flowers and fresh fruit. This first day we were off to Hanauma Bay to go snorkeling and explore the exotic fish that lived in this coral reef. The colors of the fish that were seen were countless. The crash of the waves against the naturally created, monstrous rocks along the coral reef were amazing. Pearl Harbor was the most emotional experience for most of the visitors. I also was privileged enough to be able to admire this historical sight. The vision of oil still spilling from the sunken ship was breathtaking. There were many flashes seen as I arrived at the memorial; pictures were being taken every second. There was a list of names on a carved stone wall representing the soldiers who lost their lives in the tragic event. Wherever we went, the sun was shining at its highest light. Once and a while there would be a sprinkle of rain or two. There was not worry, because this would only last for about five or ten minutes. The weather in Hawaii was absolutely gorgeous every day. The beach visits were on the top of my list as a favorite. The rolling waves a few feet away were awesome. White and black speckled seagulls would practically walk up to me looking for some kind of food. I had the pleasure of watching a real Hawaiian Show. The talented dancers made the steps look so effortless as they moved their bodies to the Hawaiian music. There were many tricks that the dancers demonstrated to us that seemed impossible to the average person. Some showman would have a lighted torch and throw it up in the air and some how catch it while they were dancing. The experience of visiting the island of Oahu, Hawaii was the most interesting trip that I could ever have taken. There was so much to learn about the culture and the historical sights. I spent nine days at this place but could have stayed there for an entire month. I would recommend this extraordinary experience to anyone who wants to expand his or her horizons.

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A Raisin in the Sun

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“A Raisin in the Sun”

- Use of Space

Liuping Wang

June 17, 00

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Which phrase can express the meaning of “a real life journey”through a story “A Raisin in the Sun”? A real life journey is referred as “use of space”. It is divided into three elements city, wild, and place. City is a symbolic city, which represents something else rather than the city. Wild is the place where people learn their life lessons. Rural is the final settlement for their life. What is the main message from these three elements?

City is a symbolic city. It is temporary and artificial. The Younger’s family lives in a poor condition, three generations in a small apartment. They do not want to stay in this poor living condition. It is too crowded for their family. They are tired of the small apartment because “They have clearly had to accommodate the living of too many people for too many years- and they are tired” (Madden 86). They share bathroom with another family on the same floor. Hansberry writes that “The child, a sturdy, handsome little boy […] goes out to the bathroom, which is in an outside hall and which is shared by another family or families on the same floor” (87). Can one big check change this poor condition? The check represents big Walter’s life and belongs to mother, Lena. Although they know that the check will come on Saturday, somehow, Younger’s family becomes very exciting. In the early Friday morning, Walter asks Ruth that “Check coming today?” (Madden 88). Ruth replies to him, “They said Saturday and this is just Friday and I hope to God you ain’t going to get up here first thing this morning” (Madden 88). Even little boy Travis asks his mother on Friday morning, “Mama, this is Friday. (Gleefully.) Check coming tomorrow, huh?” (Madden 8). The family expects the check. Everyone in the family has his or her own plan to use the check except mother, Lena. Walter wants to use the part of money to invest little liquor store. He said to Ruth, “Yeah. You see, little liquor store we got in mind cost seventy-five thousand and we figured the initial investment on the place […]. Course, there’s couple of hundred you got to pay so’s you don’t spent your life just waiting for them clowns to let your license get approved” (Madden ). This liquor store seems his dream and future. Beneatha also counts on this check. She wants to use this money to pay her college tuition. She said to Walter, “What do you want from me, Brother- that I quit school or just drop dead, Which!” (Madden 5). Beneatha has already made up her mind but her mother has not yet. Lena plans to use some money for Beneatha education. She said to Ruth, “I ain’t rightly decided. […] Some of it got to be put away for Beneatha and her schoolin” (Madden 8). Like all other mothers, she will support and pay her children education. On Friday, Lena can not help thinking his husband all the time. She talks about their dream. She said to Ruth, “I remember just as well the day me and Big Walter moved in there. […]. We was going to set away, little by little […]. But lord, child, you should know all the dream I had ’bout buying that house and fixing it up and making me a little garden in the back- (she waits and stops smiling.) And didn’t none of it happen” (Madden ). She feels sad because her husband dead. When the check comes on Saturday, Lena does not open it right away. She is staring at it while, “She finally makes a good strong tear and pulls out the thin blue slice of paper and inspects it closely” (Madden 1). This light check appears to be heavy to her, because this check represents her husband life. She is still missing him. She, of course, will not want to use this money to invest a liquor store. Lena firmly said to Walter, “I’m sorry ’bout your liquor store, son. It just was’t the thing for us to do. That’s what I want to tell you about” (Madden 15). However, her son does not understand it and do what he wants until he loses all his investing money. Though there are many opportunities through the people’s life, it is important to make good decisions and take good opportunity with less risk.

Wild is the place where people learn their life lessons. Younger’family learns one of their life lessons during moving day. Mrs. Johnson is a black lady and a neighbor of Younger’s family. She comes to their apartment and brings a newspaper with “NEGROES INVADE CLYBOURNE PARK � BOMBED” (Madden ). She wants their family to stay at their community and not to move to the white society. She is a jealous woman, but she represents a voice of the Africa-America community. Contrast to Mrs. Johnson, Mr. Lindner is a white man and represents the white community of Clybourne Park. He introduces “I am a representative of the Clybourne Park improvement association” (Madden ). He tries to persuade them not to move into their white community. They worry that the Younger’s family will bring trouble to the white community and reduce the quality of the community. Mr. Lindner said, “We feel that most of the trouble in this world, when you come right down to it” (Madden 41). He thinks that black people should live in their community and would be happy in their community. Mr. Lindner suggests that “[…] our Negro families are happier when they live in their own communities” (Madden 41). The Younger’s family has to deal with the real pressure. This pressure comes from the real world and is reflected through the real people. Walter learns his life lessons when Bobo tells him that his investing money is gone. This is disaster news for him. For him, this money means his dream and his future. Now, suddenly, all money has gone. He, of course, will get very angry and panic. He cries hard like kids. Hansberry describes that “He is wandering around, crying out for Willy” (47). Though it is a terribly painful moment, it helps him to think why it happens, how it happens, and what he is going to do. He thinks deeply at the moment. He totally changes his behaviors. He becomes calm and quiet, no drunk and no smoking. He lies on the bed in the apartment. Hansberry describes that “At left we can see Walter wither his room, alone with himself. He is stretched out on the bed, his shirt out and open, his arms under his head. He does not smoke, he does not cry out, he merely lies there, looking up at the ceiling, much as if he were alone in the world” (4). A deep thinking helps Walter building up the strength inside him. He learns the lesson from his failure. Walter tells his mother that “ He’s taught me something. He’s taught me to keep my eye on what counts in this world […] Thanks, Willy!” (Madden 45). Now he looks on the world in a totally different way. He begins to stand up like a man and behavior like a man and think like a man. He said to his mother and his sister that “ Someone tell me �tell me, who decides which women is supposed to wear pearls in this world. I will tell you I am a man- and I think my wife should wear some pearls in this world!” (Madden 55). This is important change. Walter gets supports from his mother. She teaches him that they live here for freedom and not for money. They have to stand up on their feet in this world, nerve shame themselves and never dead inside their mind. She said, “Son- I come from five generations of people who was slaves and sharcroppers- but ain’t nobody in my family never let nobody pay’em no money that was a way of telling us we wasn’t fit to walk the earth. We ain’t never been that poor. […]We ain’t never been that- dead inside” (Madden 55). The life is not always easy, but it is important to deal with and to learn from it.

Rural means that all conflicts are resolved. Walter becomes a real man. When Mr. Lindner comes to their house again, Walter tells Mr. Lindner is that their family is a hard working family as same as other families in his community. In the story, Hansberriy writes that “ I have worked as a chauffeur most of my life- and my wife here, she domestic work in people’s kitchens. So does my mother” (madden 57). Walter also wants Mr. Lindner to know that they are good people and they are proud themselves. He said, “[…] we come from people who had a lot of pride. I mean- we are very proud people” (Madden 58). He wants Mr. Lindner to understand that they have worked hard to achieve their life goal since his father. His father had worked hard for most of his life. They decide to move into this house because of his father. Walter tells Mr. Lindner their final decision, “we have decided to move into our house because my father- my father- he earned it for us brick by brick” (Madden 58). Finally, Walter mentions to Mr. Lindner that the white community does not need to worry about their family. They will not bring troubles to the community whereas they will be good neighbors for the community. They do not want the community money. The community money can not represent his father’s life. In the story, Walter said, “ We don’t want to make no trouble for nobody or fight no causes, and will try to be good neighbors. And that’s all we get to say about that. […] We don’t want your money” (Madden 58). After going through the conflict, Walter builds up his confidence and finds his identity. As a mother, Lena is proud to see her children learning their life and becoming the man and the woman. She said, “they something all right, my children” (Madden 5). Beneahta decides to go to Africa and practices there as a doctor. She wants finding her African root in there. She tells her mother and her brother that “To go to Africa, Mama- be a doctor in Africa” (Madden 5) and “To practice there” (Madden 5). Lena is very happy to see her son finally growing up as a man. She said that “He finally come into his manhood today, didn’t he? Kind of like a rainbow after the rain” (Madden 60). She is also proud of herself and her husband because their dream becomes true. They own the house and have a good happy family.

The “use of space” presents the real life of the Younger’s family. In the story “A Raisin in the Sun”, the Younger’s family improves the living condition from poor to good through their hard working. The family experiences the stresses and the conflicts inside the family and outside the society. They are satisfied with their choice and enjoy the new life. Their life experience is just like “A Raisin in the Sun”.

Please note that this sample paper on A Raisin in the Sun is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on A Raisin in the Sun, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom research papers on A Raisin in the Sun will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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