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Monday, October 22, 2012

dESCRIPTIVE eSSAY

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The cell itself is only 1 feet x 1 feet. The floor is a smooth cold concrete. The walls

are a double stacked cinder block covered in a dark yellow paint. The beds are bunk style

metal framed, each one welded together, the bottom one bolted to the floor. There is only

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one light and it is a halogen tube covered in a plastic case, that is also covered In a wire

mesh to keep out prying fingers. On the far wall there is a window. Metal framed and

double paned to keep out the cold and keep in the convict. There is one toilet, no walls

for privacy ,no seat for comfort. Just a hard, cold, porcelain commode, on which to do

your business as quickly as possible, so as not to be seen by a guard doing a count, or a

fellow inmate stopping by to borrow something. The sink is solid metal, with push button

knobs and a arc style spigot. There is no adjustment for the temperature of the water.

You either get it warm or cool, there is no in between. There are two shelves on the wall

permanently affixed there to disallow moving them from wall to wall. The door is made

of two inches of steel. There is a two inch wide window that runs vertically 18 inches,

from the handle of the door up. There is a keyhole but it does not open the door. I open

there door from the desk in the middle of the pod 0 feet away from there door. They are

give the key just to put in the lock to signal a beeping at my desk letting me know they

are requesting access to there rooms. The pod itself is a two story housing unit. The top

floor is approximately 15 feet in height. Along the walkway of the second floor is a

double railed banister gray in color. The doors to their rooms are colored based on which

housing unit they live in. The housing unit itself is illuminated by fluorescent tube

lights and fluorescent dome lights. Like in a gymnasium at a high school.

The pods themselves are set up on the recreation yard in a semi circle. They are two

sided, so there is a side one and a side two, one officer on each side. One officer with no

weapon of any kind, in a pod with up to 74 inmates. The only thing I carry into a pod is

radio and the cell keys. Left to right they are called, Stewart Hall, Ash Hall, Birch Hall,

Elm Hall, Oak Hall, Pine Hall. Depending on which hall the inmates are assigned to live,

you can get a real good idea about how they have behaved since being assigned to Mount

Olive. Inmates in Stewart are normally young, loud, and do not follow directions from

the Correctional Officer working the pod very well. As in Birch, these are the inmates

who have been incarcerated a long time and have earned the privilege of not having to be

locked in their rooms until 100 a.m. The inmates in Birch Hall also have jobs working

somewhere in the prison. It could be making license plates in the industries building,

doing laundry for the facility, or even making the food in the cafeteria. It all depends on

where the inmate wants to work. If an inmate does not want to work he may go to classes

to get an education. They have GED classes as well as college classes taught by teachers

from outside the institution. There are some inmates who have been there so long they

have been able to receive multiple degrees in different fields. Some inmates even

represent other inmates as there lawyers when those inmates go to court for a write up

they received from an officer in Mount Olive. There is a basketball court, a handball

court, a softball field, a horseshoe pit, a volleyball court, and a workout area full out

weights and weight bars, all on the rec yard. There is also an indoor gymnasium, a

library, a music room and a barber shop. But the inmates hardly use them with cable TV

and playstation game consoles in their rooms.

But there is another housing unit called Quilliams I, and Quilliams II. They are the

maximum security holding cells for the inmates who just can’t seem to fit in anywhere

on the rec yard and have to be by themselves. They are separated in there on housing unit

away from everyone else. The do not get to go out on the rec yard like everyone else, nor

do they get jobs or go to school. They sit in there cells hours a day. These inmates

only come out of there cells for 1 hour of recreation time a day and 1 hour of law library

research for their cases. They can have a visit from family but not in the same visitation

as the other inmates. They do have cable TV. This is the part of the facility that you have

most of the problems. Someone may set a fire, or throw a cup of urine or feces on you as

you walk by doing a count. You may have a fight on the rec yard, you may let someone

out to the rec yard for their hour of rec and when their hour is over they refuse to go back

to their cell. If something is going to happen it is most likely going to happen here. There

are 116 inmates in this unit and 5 officers assigned. They do have deterrents at there

disposal if they need them, OC spray, Pepper ball gun, Batons, Stun Gun, and a Sheild, in

case they have to rush into a cell to get someone.

On an average shift I work from 50 p.m. until 715 a.m. During my shift the count

is 86 inmates to 41 Officers. Not a very favorable ratio if you ask me. But the whole

principle behind it is trust. You have to trust that every thing is going to go smooth that

night and at the end of your shift you are going to be able to go home to your family.



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COMING TO AMERICA

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Everyone is different. Today our nation’s capital is a model of the post-racial society we’ve been awaiting. The article, “Coming to America”, by Jonathan Rauch, discusses the change in America’s “melting pot”, center of immigration. Immigrants continue to come to America in search of freedom. This freedom no longer represents a change in traditions and beliefs. In Rauch’s eyes the “melting pot” no longer exists, yet Americanization still carries on.

While integrated in American society, immigrants continue to keep their culture/religion close. In “Coming to America”, Rauch views newcomers as being very religious. Rauch describes how immigrant’s first priority after coming to America tends to be finding a church that believes in their culture. He uses a family of immigrants as a prime example. “The Aus, Christians, immediately found a Chinese church only a couple of miles from home. “Every Sunday they attend services in Cantonese”. This shows us that culture/religion is of key importance to newcomers. Throughout this article Rauch talks about how immigrants continue to carry on their traditions while in America, but he also goes into detail about how they use their new found freedom.

Rauch believes that immigrants use their new found freedom to uphold the beliefs and traditions of their homeland. In the past newcomers to America forgot their traditions due to Americanization, they would try to fit into the “melting pot” by taking up American customs. Today immigrants are no longer forced to forget their traditions. They feel as if their new found freedom is a chance to continue their customs not lose them. In this article Rauch shows us that continuing traditions are a big concern of immigrants. “If they want Bok Choy of fried dace or duck’s blood, they can walk to an Asian grocery just down they block”, this shows that the Aus want to be able to uphold their culture. The Aus also changed their children’s English names back to their original names after coming to America. “In Hong Kong�where, because of its history as a British colony, many people use English names�the girls were called Queenie, Amanda, and Cassandra, the boy Bryan. In America, Bryan has become Chi-hang”. This shows us that the immigrants want to continue their beliefs and traditions. Although Rauch spends time showing us how immigrants use their new found freedom, he also talks about how Washington has gone from the center of the “melting pot” to center of integrated diversity.

Rauch believes that in today society Washington is the center of integrated diversity.

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Charlotte Perkins Gulman's"The Yellow Wallpaper"

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The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gulman was an interesting story following a womans sort of descent into madness while being kept in a single room with yellow wallpaper. The story is told through the eyes of a woman writing in her journal, who does not see herself as changing but as one reads through it, can slowly see her deterioration. She initially is sane as the story began but as it progresses, she slowly descends into a sort of madness.

We are told at the beginning of the story that the woman has a nervous condition which seems to be nothing more than postpardum depression since she has just recently had a child. . When the story opens the woman, who has no name, speaks of her surroundings which she likes , with the exception of the room she is being forced to stay in. Her descriptions of the grounds and house itself are remarkably clear which causes one to wonder why it is she is brought to that house because of a nervous condition she is said to have. She sees nothing to be wrong with herself and really dislikes being taken away and forced to lay around doing nothing. She says as much in one part.

I sometimes fancy that in my condition if I had less opposition and more society and stimulus - but John says the very worst things I can do is to think about my condition, and I confess it always makes me feel bad. (p105)

Still at this point in the story the woman seems to be relatively sane. It isnt until you get to her next journal entry that you see how she is slowly changing.

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When the woman next writes in her journal she starts talking more of her surroundings. Not so much as casually mentioning them as she had been doing before but more so focusing on the little things around her room. She mentions the teeth marks on the posts of her bed and more so the yellow wallpaper. She goes into detail deeply on how it looks , how the pattern behaves and the missing spots of it on the wall. In it she seems to see so many different things. It begins to slowly take over her mind. No matter what the woman does the wall paper inevitably pops into her mind and her writing. Her condition that seemed like nothing seems to get greater. Keeping her indoors and at that house in that one room isnt helping her at all. It all seems to be adding to her nervousness and in my opinion actually is what is causing her descent.

By the womans fourth journal entry one can clearly see that she has really lost it. Now she is not only going into great detail on the pattern of the wallpaper,its colors but also its smell. She can somehow smell a yellowish scent coming from it. If only she could get out of that room and be allowed to have company she could have been better. Though she speaks to her husband of the wallpaper and lack of people around her bothering her but he pays no attention. It was at that point in the story that she sees a woman in the wallpaper.

Seeing the woman I feel was a metaphor of some sort. The woman in the wallpaper seemed to be trapped inside the wallpaper and the walls much like the woman herself was trapped inside the confines of the room she was in. It was as if she saw the woman in the walls to be herself. The pattern in the wall has become like bars to the woman in the wallpaper just as the bars on the windows in the room have become a way to keep the woman confined in the walls. As the time goes by the woman decides to tear off the wallpaper to help free the woman. At that point in eh story she then is about to leave the house herself.

The writing in t he journal gets choppier as she descends deeper into her madness. The strange part of it all is the woman sees herself as getting better though she is not sleeping at night because she sees strange developments in the wallpaper and she sees the woman coming out more. In the journal the woman has now got to the point where she has locked herself in the room, tore down the majority of the wallpaper and wont leave until she has freed the woman. Her behavior is actually a lot calmer than it was before though its calm in an eerie sort of way. Once she is seen actually crawling along the wall tethered its clear she has descended into madness.

In my opinion I felt that the woman was fairly sane to begin with and had her husband treated her normally with kindness and love instead of like some sort of freak with a disease she didnt have, she would have been fine. But the confines of the rom turned her to the loon she inevitably became.



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Animal farm

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In Animal Farm, the animals set out to improve their conditions but ended up making it worse. Although the point of Animal Farm was to make life better, eventually, their old way of life was restored. Death played a big part with how the pigs changed Animal Farm. The sale of Boxer to the glue factory and his death shows how bad things became. Another example would be when Napoleon made some of the animals confess to being Snowballs secret agent was a low point for the farm. The enormous change in the pigs is obvious when all the other animals couldnt even distinguish the pigs from the humans. It is these events that show how truly bad it got on the farm.

Boxer being sold to the glue factory was a low moment for the farm. Its clear how awful these pigs are because with the money they received from selling Boxer, they buy booze. The qualities that none of the animals liked in Mr. Jones alcoholism was beginning to start with the pigs. If they tried to get rid of the booze, the pigs would just buy more. Napoleon and Squealer also told lies about what had really happened to Boxer. Instead of telling the truth about the glue factory, they lied and said that the truck just hadnt been repainted yet. Also, Squealer lied when he said he had gone to visit Boxer and that Boxer only had nice things to say about Animal Farm. The fact that the pigs sold Boxer shows how the evil was restored.

Napoleon also convinced certain animals that they were conspiring with Snowball. Even Boxer knew that the old Animal farm would not have gone as far as killing the innocent animals. Even though he felt this way, he wouldnt dare tell the pigs. Boxer knew that if he voiced his thoughts, that he would also face death like the other animals. Even animals like Clover knew that something was wrong. Napoleon lied to all the animals about why the dogs were ordered to kill the hens and the others. He claimed that the animals were rebels and that was why he had them killed. Squealer even changed the commandment to One cant kill without reason just to cover their own backs. In this event, it is clear that even the animals are aware that their situation is worse than ever.

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By the final chapter, the pigs had changed so much it was hard to tell if they were human or pig. The pigs were participating in a lot of human activities. they were not just sleeping in beds anymore. They were wearing human clothes, drinking, and playing cards. The humans may have ruined Animal Farm first, but the pigs were not being any different. The rules that none of the animals had liked ended up being the same rules they had at the end. With the pigs drinking, playing cards with the neighbour, and not treating the animals right they turned into Mr. Jones. at this point it was clear that the pigs had turned the farm into exactly what it had been before.

Although the point of Animal Farm was to make life better, eventually, their old way of life was restored. In these events the pigs had turned their farm into what it was before Mr. Jones left. For all the animals except for the pigs life was no better then before. Even though the animals had aspired to build a great farm they ended up not improving their life style.



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workplace stress

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Workplace Stress and Technology

It may be enhancing our productivity, but current technology may also be the cause of increased stress in the workplace. The pressure of mastering the Information Technology (IT) revolution fuels workplace stress. Everyone knows what stress is all about; we all suffer from some form of stress or another. It is a common feature in each of our lives. We are all exposed to daily pressures at home and at the workplace; bills, childcare, college expenses, transportation, co-workers, scheduling. Some people are even more productive and energetic when they are under stress. But, the majority of the workers in today’s world are suffering from stress caused by the increased move of Information Technology through their organization. “Technology and Stress in the Workplace” by Michael C. Dennis, MBA, CBF, talks about how some of those new technologies that are supposedly helping us with our work are actually hurting us in the long run. Another article entitled, “Neutralizing Workplace Stress The Physiology of Human Performance and Organizational Effectiveness”, by Bruce A. Cryer, VP, talks about what we can do to cope with that new stress.

Anytime-anywhere overload and fear of not being able to master new technology are major stress causing agents in today’s workforce. In his article, “Technology and Stress in the Workplace”, Dennis states, “because technology in the workplace allows us to be more efficient, we often take on more duties and/or reduce headcount.” (cmaccom.com) He goes on further to state that usually this will leave us “feeling overwhelmed”. (cmaacom.com) The burden of responding to e-mail, voice mail, being constantly available to our staffs, using the internet, faxing, calling and answering calls, sending memos, etc., causes us to accumulate more stress. Although technology advancements will now let us perform more functions at one time, there may not be enough hours in the day for us to complete all of these functions. This leads us to take work home, therefore, disturbing the delicate work/life balance that we all put into place. This leads to that feeling of being overwhelmed. As a result, Dennis says that we begin to fall behind. We start to cope with the workplace stress by finishing tasks that seem urgent instead of the ones that are actually important. Dennis finishes his article with an alarming statistic. He states that the antidepressant Prozac is now one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for office workers.

As disturbing as this news of workplace stress caused by technology may be to us, there is hope yet. Bruce A. Cryer, in his article, “Neutralizing Workplace Stress”, says that we can work to get away from feeling stressed by this new technology. The first thing that he suggests is to actually stop ourselves long enough to slow and quiet down and ask ourselves two important questions. First, “What is really important?” and second, “What would be the most energy-efficient way to handle of this?” (heartmath.com) The answers to these questions will help us “cut through the complexity” and deal with the situation at hand. (heartmath.com) Then he suggests taking time to “recharge one’s batteries” and find a flow with our work that is fundamental to maintaining psychological solidity and balance between our mental and emotional states. Stress can be reduced utilizing these methods. Cryer’s studies tracked six frequent symptoms of workplace stress and noticed an average of 6% reduction in the stress symptoms in those that utilized the above recommendations.

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Stress has a high cost � human and financial � and it is one of the main causes of sick leave. A number of studies highlight the fact that the costs of stress to society are increasing continuously. High levels of stress have detrimental effects on workers’ health and may lead to a variety of disorders and illness. Also, the inability to cope with working and social conditions can lead to less success at work and even unemployment. It can also result in depression or death. For an organization, the cost of stress can be seen in absenteeism, higher medical costs and employee turnover. These reasons should be good reasons for these organizations to act and take effective steps to improve the stressful situations caused by the flow of Information Technology.

Works Cited

Cryer, Bruce. “Neutralizing Workplace Stress The Physiology of Human Performance and

Organizational Effectiveness.” HeartMath 1 Jun 16. 15 Oct 00

httpwww.heartmath.com/Library/Articles/neutralize.html

Dennis, Michael. “Technology and Stress in the Workplace.” CMA Business Credit Services 15

Oct 00. 15 Oct 00 http//www.cmaccom.com/article



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The Fronting Wars continue

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A fronting company is a licensed insurance company that issues an insurance policy and reinsures the risk of loss back to the captive insurer owned by the insured. This allows the insured to benefit from both having a captive insurer and being able to obey regulations that mandate the insurance company that is issuing the policy to be licensed. Furthermore, this licensed insurance company allows the insured to work with other parties that require their insurance company to be rated, whereas this would not be the case in a pure captive situation. However, the market for providing fronting services is becoming dramatically smaller and insurance companies are becoming more tentative to enter into these agreements.

Despite the fact that the use of captives as a risk financing technique is growing at a rapid pace, insurance companies do not seem to have the financial and underwriting resources to provide fronting services. This could possibly be due to the fact that there are fewer insurance companies in the market compared to the past and they have an unwillingness to take on a fronting position while seeing other companies fail, like Frontier and Legion. Despite these “notorious demises,” the author argues that insurance companies could make a profit from fronting if they become better secure and paid more attention to the finer details of the reinsurance agreement.

The author forms a very good point that an important consideration an insurance company must make when entering into a fronting situation is to look at the nature of risk of the potential insured and the character, capacity, and capital of the captive owner. Furthermore, to better protect against having to pay for losses because the captive is unable to do so, the insurance company should increase their requirement for liquid cash and cash equivalents as necessary obligations in order to create the policy. On the other side of the picture, insurance companies should also evaluate the motives a company has for forming a captive to make sure that they are doing it for the right reason and that the managers understand how the cash will be handled.

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Overall, an insurance company could make money by acting as a fronting company if they took the proper precautions before entering into an agreement. They should not shy away from this opportunity because some companies have failed in the past, but rather look for ways to improve upon their wrongdoings. Basically, if security and management are acceptable and watched then solvency issues can be mitigated, if not eliminated.



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Singapore airlines : swot analysis

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1. MARKET OF AIR TRANSPORT

1.1. Market characteristics

The air transport sector is characterised by a strong but cyclic growth and an uncertain profitability.

During the 1st half of the century, the civil aviation sector developed its activities until acquiring a world dimension and generating a high added value.

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It became the 1st public transport mean of travellers and goods of great value for the international and intercontinental connections. It is a very sensitive sector to the economic situation because this sector is strongly dependant on the business cycles and political events.

At all events, the economic development determinate its growth an GDP increase involves a more important proportional traffic increase, and contrary, the demand is very sensitive to the recessions.

The income - elasticity of the demand for air transport being high, fluctuations of the economy have stronger effects on this activity. For example, after the crisis of 1, during which the world recession and the Gulf War caused cause a demand decrease, the sector knew a sustained high growth, as well on a world level as European.

It is difficult to envisage the evolution of air transport. According to last market researchs carried out by the principal manufacturers of planes, the world demand on this sector should continue to increase strongly during the 0 next years at intervals around 5 % per annum.

Moreover, it will be advisable to adjust these forecasts by envisage some events as “September 11”. Indeed, the customers, frightened by the terrorist leagues and their attacks, abruptly slowed down their frequentations on the international flights.

Data concerning the largest airline companies in Asia-Oceania

ASIA- OCEANIA CUSTOMERS

(millions $) PPK

(millions $) TURNOVER

(Millions $) EMPLOYEES PLANES



1, 08

41 10

46 87

15 60

1 051

Conclusion The air transport market is a sector with strong added value. However, it is advisable to note that certain external events influence it, without any fast possible reaction of the airline companies (Economy, Policies).

This market shows an interesting and regular growth, however regularly stopped by the world events (Gulf War, Terrorist acts of September 11).

1. Main issue

Singapore Airlines is the leader in term of service in the air transport sector. However, the group is announced a fall about its financial results. Of course, this period is the consequence of the various events of September 11, as well as the emergence of an increased and more fierce competition in the sector.

The objective of Singapore Airlines is to improve its service offer as well as the development of a new communication campaign.

How the group Singapore Airlines succeeded in fighting competition and not stay on its positions of leader?

1. SINGAPORE AIRLINES STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT

.1 CONSUMERS

.1.1 Different kind of consumers

We will join 4 kind of consumers in categories

៽Professionals

Professionals Very Important Professionals

Asian people Foreign people Asian people Foreign people

៽Private individuals

Private individuals wealthy Private individuals

Asian people Foreign people Asian people Foreign people

. Customers origin

-75 % are foreign, which represents 6 million seats(Either the highest CA)

-5 % come from the island, or 1 million seats sold.

.1. tendencies of the consumer

Condittions Class choisie(s) Reasons Night flight 1st class - Comfort higher Need for safety thus more demanding request Night flight 1st class - higher Comfort - Need for safety Length mail 1st class - Class raffles - Equipment adapted for a pleasant flight Flight of day - economic Class - gravitational Price

Kind of flight



Range

Reasons

Night flight

-1st class

- higher Comfort

- Need for safety and looking for services

� Long flight �

-1st class

-Middle class

- Equipment adapted for a pleasant flight

-

� Daytime flight �

-Economic class

- Attractive price

1.1.4 Brakes for consumers

Being given the current economic situation in air transport business, it seems essential to develop the brakes for customers.

The airline companies don’t control the customers demand as in any other sector. Indeed, this market is dependant with the economic and governmental economic situation.

Singapore Airlines is supporting the effects of all the attacks which have occurred in the United States on “11 September” and after. The passengers are frightened by potential terrorist offensives and the number of reservations have fallen.

A marketing campaign about safety could not modify the request. So, the company is dependent on the evolution of international political context

Conclusion after analysing this part, we will be able to note that the profile of the consumer is

-A professional (normal or high importance)

-With a foreign nationality

-Which chooses the first class business for a daytime flight and long flight

- Which are very sensitive concerning safety

. Segmentation

Criteria High tech people Comfort people Economic people Exigent people Accustomed people

Passenger origin



-International

- International

-Local

- International

-Asia

-Foreign people

(Professional flight)

Kind of flight

- Long flight



-Long flight

- short flight

- Long flight



-Short flight

- Long flight

Nature of flight -Professional -Professional

-Private individuals

- Private individuals

- Private individuals

- Private individuals

-Professional

Looking for

- Modern Installation

-Communication tools (Internet, fax….)

-Minimum wait



maximum Comfort

-shower

- oriental seats

-Customised service

-Quality of food

-Minimum wait

- attractive price

-Comfort

-High technology

-Customised service

-Reliability of the company

-punctuality

-Comfort

-fidelity program

Typical sign

-Wealthy customers

This kind of customers can pay for expensive service.



-No possible fidelity.

This kind of customers only looking for the cheaper price.

- Very exigent customers.

-Medium fidelity level

-A good buying potential

-Regularly flight

5.- The Price

Singapore Airlines’ prices are function of

- the class chosen

- the period

- the destination

Some examples of tariff

Companies Korean

Airlines Malaysia

Airlines Cathay

Pacific Air

New Zealand Singapore

Airlines

Sideboard

Auckland

Auckland

Auckland

Auckland

Auckland

Price



We notice that among the different proposed companies concern a flying with the same destination (Auckland), Singapore Airlines is one of the tariff the most expensive (the second one after Air New Zealand). And, we remark that there is a difference between SIA and the lowest price company which correspond to nearly 00 euros.

However, it seems that SIA has a “skimmed policy”. Indeed, high prices made reference at a good-quality product in consumers’ spirit. So, we can say that its policy in term of price corresponds perfectly to its target.

5.- The Promotion

- partnership with American Express for the launch of Singapore Airlines Krisflyer Credit Card.

- % of net returns of the company are consecrate to advertising and promotion.

- promotional offers are managed at a local level (knowledge of local habits and needs).

- “Singapore Girl” is a key element of the advertising strategy for the company (image of the company associated to sensuality and exotic charm).

- campaigns axed on the technological aspects of planes.

Conclusion a deep study near foreign professional customers (“heart of the target”) proves that the sensual connotation was estimated whereas local people preferred the technological aspect of advertising campaigns synonyms of modernity and reliability.

5.4- the Distribution

- travel bureau (exclusive system of distribution until 17)

- “Abacus” is its own system of reservation by Internet, exploited now by a lot of companies.

- Possibility of packages flights + cars hiring + hotel.

- Web site of the company (www.singaporeair.com)

Conclusion the company has a huge distribution system which corresponds perfectly to Airlines Industry.

6- Recommendations

- target in a best way its “key customers”. Which consumers are the most profitable?

To our mind, the company has to adapt its promotion with the foreign professionals which represent a high percentage of sales revenues. In that way, SIA may axed its international means of communication more on exotic charm and air hostess than reliability.

For this, the company must use different types of communication supports such as international newspapers, TV advertising campaigns. Besides, SIA has to improve its international web sites in terms of quality and ease to use.

- Innovation. The company has to follow its investment policy in technological field in order to propose high-technology products in planes such as Internet access or telecommunication equipments.

- Customers satisfaction. The company has to pursuit its efforts in term of customers satisfaction in conducting more studies to be able to measure the level of satisfaction of consumers. The aim of SIA is to improve this level in examining the problems and in finding solutions faced to these problems. For example, the company should impose training programs about new technologies for the staff. Moreover, interventions of ground workforce must be less numerous and more efficient in term of timetable and places attribution. The travel in fact has to be agreeable from the reservation to the arrival.

Finally, knowing that the “heart of the target” is represented by professionals, it seems interesting to communicate on timetable respect and to put in place a repay-system if the timing is not respected.





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Friday, September 28, 2012

A Netherlandish Carved Altarpiece c. 1510

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A Netherlandish Carved Altarpiece c. 1510

The oak altarpiece of about 1510 from Brussels in the Royal Ontario Museum is attributed to the Borman workshop. Similar to other altarpieces of the time, the corpus assumes the form of an inverted “T”. In the central compartment, there is a representation of the Nativity / the Adoration of the Shepherd. The left compartment features Presentation in the Temple, at the moment of Christ’s circumcision. On the right, we see an image of the Adoration of the Magi. Above the central scene, there is a Coronation of the Virgin. In the bottom compartment contains two prophets holding scrolls of the Holy Scriptures. The retable’s possible placement on the high altar, where the Eucharist is celebrated, explains the limitation of its subject matters. The carved altarpiece functions as an illustration of the central themes of the Mass, and aid for meditation and a suitable backdrop for the moment of consecration. The examination of the original position and appearance of the reredos provides insight to the ritual practice of the Mass, the religious sentiments and the creative process of the early sixteenth century.

The attention to details, the exotic garments and the twisting poses associate the piece with Jan Borman and his workshop in Brussels. The ROM retable is full of rich surface details. The exquisitely carved figure of the kneeling king in the foreground of the Adoration of the Magi has curvy hair, which the carver describes in fine details. The soldier standing near him whose back is toward the viewer shows the diamond-patterns of his garment. The clothing of the characters also demonstrates an interest in exoticism1. The hats of the three kings are very elaborately decorated with an impression of foreignness. The hat of the oldest king is placed in the central foreground as if the carver is eager to display his ability to realize such wonderful details to the viewer. A few figures in the foregrounds turn their back to us, which is a distinct element of Jan Borman the Elder. The shepherd on the right of the Nativity twists his body exaggeratedly with his back to us turning to his right to acknowledge the Child. He also gestures to the Baby in the centre with his left hand. The figure standing in the front on the extreme right of the Presentation duplicates the posture of the shepherd. Most of the figures in the foreground are sculpted in the round and on an individual block of wood, which demonstrate the characteristics of the Brussels workshops.

According to the images in contemporary paintings and pages from books of hours, carved altarpiece is usually placed behind the high altar. The most frequently quoted source of the location of the wooden reredos is Rogier van der Weyden’s painted altarpiece Seven Sacraments (fig.1). In the background of the central panel, a priest is shown in front of a sculpted retable, at the moment of consecration. The piece is located about two bays away from the very east end of the church. The building might be a pilgrimage church that has multiple chapels in the choir. People are shown walking around and behind the high altar. However, it is clear that the reredos is placed on the altar, upon which Mass is celebrated. Also, in a miniature depicting Philip the Good at Mass (fig. ), a carved retable in an inverted “T” shape is in front of the priest who is conducting a service. Two arches which suggest the space of two bays are shown behind the curtains that confine the space where the Mass takes place. The reredos also seems to have been installed on the high altar, which is placed right in front of the east end. The piece in ROM might have possibly been installed on an altar in a similar position.

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Retables appear to be closely connected with the ritual of the Mass, which commemorates the birth, the life and the death of Jesus Christ. Netherlandish carved altarpieces from Brussels and Antwerp usually consist of narratives from the Infancy of Christ, the Passion and the Life of the Virgin � the major themes of the Mass4. The narrative elements of the altarpiece prove further that the reredos plays an important role in the liturgical ceremony. The oak retable in ROM has a cycle of narratives that can be associated with the Incarnation of Christ, which is the central mystery of the Christian faith and is a typical subject for Netherlandish sculpted reredos. The Nativity is depicted in the central compartment of the ROM altarpiece. The scene of Jesus’s birth is emphasized by its central position and a higher elevation than the two scenes flanking it. In the moment of consecration, the priest would lift up the wafer facing the centre of the altarpiece as it is shown in the background of van den Weyden’s Seven Sacraments (fig. 4). The Child lying on the ground is located on the axis, a position approximately coincides with where the wafer may be upon the altar. The congregation would definitely relate the wafer to the Saviour who is represented in the form of flesh in the altarpiece. The wafer, which is transformed into the real flesh of Jesus when consecrated, is juxtaposed with the form of the Child in the altarpiece. The retable gives a visual account of what is said in the Mass therefore it is suitable to be the backdrop to the celebration of the Eucharist5.

The shape of the case of the retable also bares close relation to the consecration of the Host. The altarpiece in ROM assumes the form of an inverted “T” with an elevated centre. It is also seen in The Nordingra Passion altarpiece from Brussels (fig. ), the reredos in Seven Sacraments (fig. 4), and the one in Philip the Good at Mass (fig. ). The inverted “T” shape seems to be the typical form for the body of the Netherlandish carved reredos according to the surviving pieces. The elevation of the central section imitates the priest’s movement of consecration, when he lifts up the Host. In the early sixteenth century, the climax of the Mass is considered to be the Elevation of the Host instead of the reception of the mass, when the individual consume the wafer and drink the wine6. The shape of the retable emphasizes the most dramatic moment of the ceremony visually.

The carved reredos might also function as a visual attraction that draws the congregation’s attention to the altar. The services are still said in Latin in early sixteenth century before the reform. The laity who does not know Latin would just sit through the ceremony not understanding what the priest is saying. Thus, having a visual companion that matches the content of the Mass help the lay congregation to concentrate on and to partake in the spiritual experience 7. Art’s chief function in the late medieval period is to educate and inform the illiterate people and to enrich their meditation. The retable in ROM depicts the story of Jesus’s birth in the manger, His circumcision, and the Adoration of the Magi. These narrative scenes help the viewer to concentrate on the idea that God became flesh and provide many details for meditation. Moreover, the scenes of adoration of the Virgin, the shepherds, and the Magi invite the spectators to do the same � to worship the Christ.

The carved altarpiece might very possibly have been gilded in gold and polychromed, though no trace of the original paint can to be found in the piece any more now8. Polychromy is referred to as an indispensable part of Netherlandish sculpted retables in the contracts between artists and their patrons. The unpainted altarpieces are considered as “rough” and “bare”, in other words, unfinished. The piece in ROM is very likely one of the many wooden retables sold in the Pand market in Antwerp, where art works and other luxurious objects are displayed from 1460 to 1560. It is probably painted as it is in the case of the other uncommissioned ones that are made between 1400-1550. A polychromed piece is much more desirable than an unpainted one to the churchgoers in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, when the late medieval taste still prevails. The overall appearance of gold with primary colours such as red, blue, and white, makes altarpieces appear precious like jewels10. Abbot Suger, who is considered the patron of the first completely Gothic11 church, claims that beautiful and multicoloured gems can direct one’s meditation to the Divine and to the higher realms1.

Almost simultaneous with the development of altarpieces, private devotion becomes very popular in northern Europe, especially among the laity. Growing numbers of small devotional images in the forms of diptyches, triptychs and multitychs, and the popularity of books of hours indicate a strong desire to confront God directly. The main purpose of artworks in this period of time is to aid the viewer in his meditation that he may experience the Divine. Therefore, a gilded and painted altarpiece with brilliant colours, which suggests a sense of preciousness, is helpful in leading the congregation who sit facing the retable to contemplate God.

Futhermore, to have the retable gilded using gold leaves marks the holiness of the altar, upon which the ritual of the Eucharist is performed. Gold is suggested to be a material that symbolizes God. In Song of Songs, the Shulamite describes her Beloved, who stands for the Lord “His head is like the finest gold” (510). Furthermore, the retable being gilded in gold makes it appear in harmony with the other objects that are on the altar during the Mass, such as chalices, candlesticks, monstrance, which are made in gold also1.

The standardisation of iconography, subject and the overall arrangement of the figures suggest that the retable in ROM as well as many surviving Netherlandish carved altarpieces are made for the open market without commissions. With a few exceptions, all Brabantine carved reredos of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries have an elevated centre, a similarity that is impossible to be overlooked14. Moreover, the subject matter restricts to only Infancy, Passion or the Life of the Virgin. The ROM retable shows the combination of the Infancy and the Life of the Virgin cycles. A Brussels altarpiece of 1510-15 depicting the Life of the Virgin (fig.5) has many similarities with the ROM piece. In both works, the Virgin sits on a throne in the middle; she is holding the Child, facing the viewer frontally. On her left kneels the oldest king; on her right another king dressed in exotic clothing. In the foreground, almost at the same spot lies the hat of the oldest king. However, there are obvious variations the king on the right hand side of the virgin appears fatter in the Life of the Virgin Altarpiece than the one in the ROM retable; there are more characters in the ROM piece than the other one. These differences might be the result of the styles of individual carvers, but the overall design of the two scenes is very similar. These two retable might even come from the same workshop.

In the early sixteenth century, carved altarpieces become luxury goods rapidly produced by ateliers in Brussels and Antwerp. To quicken the process of making wood retables, chores are divided among many sculptors, joiners, and painters15. At less two different sculptors participate in the creative process of the ROM reredos. One artist carves the four angels standing around the Virgin in the Nativity. He might be responsible also for the two angels standing on the columns flanking the corpus and the Virgin and Child statueon top of the piece. The figures sculpted by him are elongated and their garments are in swaying movement. The other sculptor demonstrates more skills in carving details and the figures he makes are more rounded and their clothing has beautiful patterns. He might be in charge of carving the kings in the Adoration of the Magi. A third artist makes the shepherd standing at the right foreground; he might have come from Antwerp because of the twisting forms he applies to the figure. The repetition of the same design and the division of labour speed up the production of the retables, which are much sought after in the market in Antwerp. Furthermore, using patterns from model books can make the process easier. The group of Virgin worshipping the Child with four angels appears to be a direct quote from Hugo van der Goes’s famous Portinari Altarpiece, 1475. In both cases, the Virgin’s figure seems larger than others; the Child is lying on the ground and the angles are smaller than the human beings around them. The painting might be copied widely in the late fifteenth century and becomes one of the models in Borman’s shop.

The oak altarpiece in ROM might have served as a backdrop for the celebration of Mass, a visual explanation of the mystery of the Incarnation for the laity, and an aid for meditation. The development of the reredos is a result of a desire to confront God directly through contemplating beautiful objects. The ROM retable’s conventional subject matters, similar design to other contemporary piece and its very typical shape suggest that it might have been produced for the open market instead of on commission.





Notes

1 Kim W. Woods, “Five Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces in England and the Brussels School of Carving c. 1470-150,” The Burlingtion Magazine 18 (16)788.

Ibid., 788.

The original location of the altarpiece in the fifteenth and sixteenth century is discussed by Woods and Jacobs in their essays in relation with van der Weyden’s Seven Sacrements.

4Kim W. Woods, “The Netherlandish Carved Altarpiece c. 1500 Type and Function” in The Altarpiece in the Renaissance, Ed. Peter Humfrey. (New York Cambridge University Press, 10), 86.



5 Lynn F. Jacobs, Early Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces, 180-1550 Medieval Tastes and Mass Marketing, (New York Cambridge University Press, 18), 6-.

6Woods, Altarpiece in the Renaissance, 8.

7Jacobs, Medieval Tastes, 64.

8 Gerard Brett, “A Reredos from the Workshop of Jan Borman at the Royal Ontario Museum of Archeology, Toronto, Canada.” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 44 (184) 4.



Jacobs, Medieval Tastes, 84-5.

10Ibid, 4.

11Gothic here means an architectural taste that prefers airiness to weight and brightness to obscurity. A taste that esteems the colourful decoration over the Romanesque severity.

1 Linda Grant, Abbot Suger of Saint Denis Church and State in Early Twelfth-Century France (England Longman, 18), .



1 Jacobs, Medieval Tastes, 4.

14 Lynn F. Jacobs, “The Marketing and Standardization of South Netherlandish Carved Altarpieces Limits on the Role of the Patron,” Art Bulletin 71 (18)15.



15Ibid., 15.



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Thursday, September 27, 2012

how 2 do a tatti

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valuation

Reflecting upon the criteria selected for purposes of this investigation, overall experiment was in agreement with the hypothesis. The set of results obtained demonstrated a clear correlation. Existing scientific logic can be applied to explain any discrepancies, which is included in the conclusion. The experiment was relatively straight forward to carry out, in the sense that the method I used was well thought out and coherent. No complex technical equipment was used either and so I was familiar with everything I used.

Through looking at my set of results and the class’ average results I saw that the results should produce a relatively curved shape when the points were joined dot-to-dot, overall my results achieved this, this tells me my results are quite reliable.

The fact that I also used pieces of potato for each concentration and that the increases in length for each of the two pieces were quite similar suggests that the results are accurate.

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However, through looking at my results I can see that by comparing the % change for my 0.00M solution to the class average, my result is significantly higher i.e. nearly twice as big. This suggests that my result must have been anomalous for this quantity i.e. an error must have occurred. The reason for this could have been improper dilution of the solution made as for the concentration 0.00M the solution consisted of just distilled water. As a result the only reason for the anomalous result could have been human error with the measurement of the potato sample before putting it into the tuber or even after the practical was over, when I was measuring the new length.



Even though I say that my results were accurate and reliable, through looking at the graph I have drawn overleaf (of class results), you can see that there is a huge range of results, for example for the concentration of 0.4M, the values range from 0.00 to �8.0, this huge difference in ranges between the class is present on more or less all of the individual concentration results. This suggests that there was an error somewhere along the line, decreasing the accuracy of my results. If the range was small, this would mean that the points were close together and so everyone got the same results, however this was not true meaning that there were some errors.

Sources of Errors

1. The preparation of sucrose solutions.

. The sucrose was weighed using an electronic balance (one decimal place)

. The purity (gradation) of the sucrose

4. The associated moisture (water of crystallisation) of the sucrose

5. The 10ml pipette used accuracy 0.1ml

6. There was no way of measuring the molarities of the solutions

7. The uniformity in variety and the age of the potatoes used

8. Length of the potato were measured using a ruler (accuracy +/-1mm)

. The sharpness of the potato cutting instrument

Explanation for the large variations in the class results

The fact that different potatoes were used by the class also could be another reason as to why the range of results are so large. Each of the potatoes could have had a slightly differing water potential than the rest therefore more water molecules could have moved into or equally out of the potato sample for a particular concentration, this would vary the calculated % change, again giving inaccurate results.

How could my experiment be more accurate?

1. The potato segments should be measured using a micrometer.

. The experiment should be repeated using more than just two samples

. The sucrose used for solution (be graded by quality control)

4. The container should be covered to exclude air borne contamination

5. Ambient temperature and pressure recorded

6. The potato was randomly wiped using blotting paper

7. The experiment should be repeated with time as a variable

It is also possible that the measurements of the lengths of the potato samples may have been inaccurate (both before and after being submerged in the solution). The technique I used was just a standard ruler. This means the results were only accurate to the nearest millimetre. The use of this instrument also left the possibilities of human error. Even though I did repeat the measurement of each sample on two occasions to ensure accuracy, I cannot vouch upon the rest of the class doing the same. This could have been resolved via the use of a simple set of weighing scales, as there is no chance of human error and are accurate to three decimal places the nearest 0.000g (a huge amount more than the ruler) or still if we wanted to measure length a set of callipers could have been used (there is barely any chance of error with this).



In each of the sucrose concentrations that I created, I placed two potato samples. Now thinking about this, if I had time to repeat the experiment again I would only place one potato sample per sampling tube. There could have been an effect that the two potato samples together had that may have resulted in an increase or decrease in the % change. If the water potential of the solution was lower than the potatoes, the potatoes could have each given out more or less water molecules as they were as a pair. This again could mean there is an error in my results.

Another place where errors could have originated from was the fact that the potato samples had to be dabbed onto blotter paper to remove excess moisture before being measured. Some potato samples may have been dabbed too much and therefore had removed too much moisture (making the length smaller). This could have again given false lengths.

Now that I have looked at all the possible sources of errors, I feel the sources that effected my investigation the most were, firstly the likelihood that dilutions were improper. This is due to the fact that I had to use pipettes, which had a size of 10ml and were only accurate to the nearest o.1ml. This meant for each dilution I had to use for than one pipette full and so the errors built up. This meant the concentrations I though I made were not actually what I expected and so decreasing the accuracy of my results, as once the solution was made there is no way to tell what the molarity of a solution is. I would have much rather used a burette which is the most accurate piece of apparatus available at measuring solutions. Secondly, again the fact that I placed two potato samples in each sampling tube. There could have been an effect that the two potato samples together had that may have resulted in an increase or decrease in the % change. If the water potential of the solution was lower than the potatoes, the potatoes could have each given out more or less water molecules as they were as a pair. This again could mean there is an error in my results. Finally, there could have been skin left on the potato sample at certain sides. In my investigation I used 1 potato to ensure I carried out my fair testing regulations. As I made the final potato samples I got were closer to the edges. This meant there might have been a layer of skin on one side of the potato or even that the potato sample may have had a non uniform diameter. Due to a layer of skin, water molecules would have not been able to move into the plant cells or out as easily via the process of osmosis as there would be an additional layer for the water to pass through. This resulted in either an increase or decrease in what should have been the actual % change of length. I feel these were the errors that most effected my investigation.

I will also compare my results to a secondary source. Below is a copy of Marilyn’s data on the same experiment.

Sucrose Conc. M Initial length cm Final length cm Difference in length cm % Length change

0.00 .5 .65 +0.0 +8.0

0.10 .50 .65 +0.15 +4.0

0.5 .50 .60 +0.10 +.0

0.0 .65 .70 +0.05 +1.40

0.40 .50 .50 0.00 0.00

0.45 .50 .40 -0.10 -.0

0.50 .50 4.5 -0.15 -4.0

0.80 .40 .05 -0.5 -10.

1.00 .10 .70 -0.40 -1.



Overleaf I have drawn a graph of these sets of results and it is obviously clear that although the two graphs follow a general trend of a negative correlation, there are turning points at different part for both graphs. One other similarity the two experiments have is that the water potential is �110Kpa (the molarity for 0% change is 0.40M for both). However for my secondary data I have more readings and this is why there are these slight turning points that vary to that of my results, for instance in my secondary source readings were taken at molarities such as 0.5M, 0.45M ect. it is possible that my experiment would have also had these abrupt turns if I had taken readings at these molarities instead of keeping a constant distance of 0.10M between each concentration of sucrose solution.

However I can see that although the graph fits with my results and the class average results, if I were to take the individual class readings there would be a huge difference in results. This again points towards the fact that there were variations and errors. I know how the secondary source carried out the experiment as it came from a college technician, who gave us a plan for how the experiment was carried out. The plan was to ensure no other factors effected the final % change other than the water potentials of the solution and potato sample. I can see one error on the results (circled on graph) at 0.5M, this is because it is a very sharp and unexpected turn. Reasons for this error, I can only say could be down to human error.

Explanation for the non conforming results

The solution concentration could have been diluted wrongly, the potato lengths could have been measured inaccurately before or after the potato sample was placed in the sucrose solution. By looking at the graph for secondary data I can see that the points would fall in the range of the class results easily.

Reproducibility of results

If I had the possibility to improve or extend my investigation I would primarily use a more accurate method to create the appropriate dilutions, for instance I would have used a burette, which could hold the exact amount needed in one go, rather than in two. This would have enabled me to create more accurate dilutions. I would also place one potato sample per sampling tube as I don’t know if by placing two at a time I varied the final length of the samples. Using two may have meant less potato sample had to expel or consume more or less water to reach an equilibrium between the internal and external water potentials. Also, as explained before I would also have used electronic weighing scales to measure mass, instead of a ruler to measure length, as the weighing scales are far more accurate and would also leave no chance of human error. If the measurement of length was mandatory I would have felt more comfortable using callipers as there is a higher accuracy rating and less chance of error also. Finally, I would have liked to have used concentrations closely around the 0.40M concentration (the concentration that gave a 0% change in length) to see what the exact sucrose solution was that shared the same water potential as the potato, as the value of 0.40M is only accurate to the nearest millimetre, the % change for 0.M, 0.41M ect. could also be 0% to the nearest millimetre. I would have liked to use the following concentrations 0.M, 0.8M, 0.5M, 0.41M, 0.4M, and 0.45M. This would consequently give me a more accurate figure for the water potential of the potato. I would have also made each of the solutions separately so if an error was made in one solution, it would only affect the results for that concentration, rather than the results for all the concentrations.

Reliability, reproducibility and accuracy

Now that I have looked at the way in which I carried out my investigation and also compared it to secondary data, I feel my results are not as firm as I previously imagined them to be. The fact that the class ranges are so far apart illustrates that there were operator variations in results, decreasing both the reliability and accuracy of the results. Taking this into account, the results obtained I have acquired as a result of this investigation are only a suggestion of what should happen i.e. a decrease in validity. The investigation did work, in that my results matched the theoretical predication, but the degree of accuracy is not so great that if I repeated the investigation again, that the turning points in my practical would be the same again and again i.e. I couldn’t say with any conviction that the % change for any potato sample with a length of cm when put in a 0.40M solution would be 0.00% or equally the % change for a potato sample placed in 0.00M solution would be +15.0% or even close to that.



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ethics

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What are ethics? Everyone has a sense of what ethics are, but pinning it down in a clear definition is not easy. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines ethics as “a discipline dealing with good and evil and with moral duty.” It includes questions like “What is the right thing to do?” “Is lying ever okay?” “Is it better to do this or that?” There are two common systems of thought regarding ethics. One is absolutism, and the other is relativism.

Cultural relativism is the belief that right and wrong vary from one society to another and from one time to another. In practice, it is the belief that what is right for one person is not necessarily right for another person. The cultural relativist observes that some things that are considered wrong today in America, such as slavery, were not always considered wrong in America and are not always considered wrong in other societies today. In Arab countries, it is considered wrong for a woman to be out in public with her head uncovered, but elsewhere in the world it is acceptable and even the norm. From this they conceive that right and wrong must be relative, and that absolute right and wrong do not exist.

Absolutism, on the other hand, believes that right and wrong are based on a truth that doesn’t vary. The absolutist believes that what is right or wrong is always right or wrong whether or not a society recognizes it as such at the time. Absolutism is often founded in religious faith, believing that the truth of right and wrong comes from God, such as is found in the Ten Commandments. The absolutist views ethics much like the scientist views nature, that there is a truth out there waiting to be discovered and explained, and once explained everything else falls into place. For example, when an absolutist believes that life begins at conception, it becomes obvious to him or her that abortion is the taking of a human life and is, therefore, wrong.

These two opposing views can be seen clearly in American history.

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During the founding of America, absolutists clearly held sway. The Puritans had a clearly absolutist view stemming from their firm belief in the Bible. Many of the writers of the Constitution also firmly believed in an absolute standard for right and wrong. John Adams once wrote, “We have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge or gallantry would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution is designed only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate for any other.” This view predominated in American society until fairly recently. There were several factors in the late 1800’s that precipitated a change. The realization that slavery is wrong despite its seeming acceptance in the Bible, the increase in communication due to the telephone, the transcontinental railroad, and improved postal service, the introduction of Darwinism, and even the introduction of Nietsche’s philosophy of existentialism that claimed “God is dead,” all contributed to the changing ethical climate of the time. In recent years, the predominant view has become one of cultural relativism. In American society today, it is considered unacceptable and intolerant to hold to absolutist views. Our society as a whole, tends to believe that it is wrong for a person to try to change the moral standards of someone else. All beliefs should be accepted as valid, although in trying to do so, the relativist becomes intolerant of absolutist views, which is an area where cultural relativism breaks down. The widespread propagation of anti-discrimination laws is another area that shows our society’s trend toward cultural relativism. Many of those protected by recent laws were not accepted or treated fairly in the recent past.

In conclusion, the two main ethical frameworks, absolutism and relativism, have both been observed in American society. Whether these changes are considered good or bad will depend, to a large degree, on the framework of the individual. Both absolutism and relativism have been around a long time, and neither one will be disappearing any time soon. Perhaps, the collision of these two viewpoints will cause people to think about the good points of each, and find a third alternative, a new and better common ground.



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REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER.

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Top Girls is the story of women, women in Britain in 18. Margaret Thatcher is Prime Minister. Ronald Reagan is President and all is right with the world. At least as long as you are on top. The playwright, Caryl Churchill, approaches the role of women in society at the end of the 0th century with a critical eye to what it takes to be successful and what we all have lost in the process. It is unapologetically both touching and angry.

Chris Honer’s Interpretation of Top Girls did the play justice, and whilst there were parts that might have needed more contrast and emphasis, I felt that the play was a good interpretation and that some of the themes and issues explored in the play are still relevant to women and men in society today. The play was done utilising a mix of both Brechtian and Stanislavskian elements. The characters were strong characters you could believe in, however the plot was short and episodic, and typical of Epic Theatre. In my personal opinion, I felt that Leah Muller, the actress playing both Lady Nijo and Angie, needed more of a contrast between the two characters. However, you could see in Sophie James, who played Isabella Bird, Joyce and Louise, the actual thought processes and the internalisation. Having said that, all of the actresses managed to create a distinction between the characters that they were playing, this was done in the way they used their body language to convey their thoughts and feelings to the audience, right the way down to the mannerisms and quirks of their individual characters.

I thought that set utilised the space in a efficient and well planned manner. The first scene used a revolve which whilst over-used in terms of revolving was effective as the dinner scene went on, and helped to convey the idea of drunkenness to the audience, whilst letting every member of the audience see the facial expressions of each of the actresses. The background for this scene looked to be a mural that involved stars and gods, which to me seemed to convey that Marlene was at the top. Behind the actual set itself was a very Brechtian Element of darkness, which gave the impression that the actors came from nowhere and went back into nowhere. Since this was an alienation effect to remind the audience that they are in a theatre watching a performance, it helped with the non-chronological order of the scenes in the play.

After the dinner scene, we saw the office, which had a massive attention to detail, from the coffee machine to the 18 wall planner on the wall. In all of the different places that the play takes part in the attention to detail was wonderful. In the office set there were levels that were utilised to show status in the office, with Marlene’s desk being on the top level. This set had no feminine touch, and was bleak and blank. It showed us how impersonal and how Marlene lived her life. She didn’t want family to interfere with her career and this set of an office showed us this and helped to make us believe that vision of hers. Between the scenes music from the 180’s, however since I was born in 185 I couldn’t recognise it, yet some members of the audience were “reliving their youth”, this once again was adding to the attention to detail for the play and helped to convey to the audience the time period of the play. For the set of the Back Yard and the interview office, it wasn’t realistic, which was another alienation effect utilised by the designer, Sarah Williamson, and the director, Chris Honer.

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All in all I felt that it was a good interpretation of a play, with some excelling acting performances, and a set that made you think what was going to happen next. The combination of the Stanislavskian and Brechtian elements further enhanced the play and helped us to imagine what it would be like in 18. As well as doing that it made us think about some of the political and moral issues that we can still apply in the year 00 as audience members.

Please note that this sample paper on REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER. is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER., we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on REVIEW OF CARYL CHRUCHILL’S TOP GIRLS SEEN AT THE LIBRARY THEATRE ON MONDAY 20TH OCTOBER. will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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life

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The soil of an area provides the foundation for plant and animal development. Areas that have not yet developed plants tend to have poor, hard, or shallow soil. As plants begin to develop, soil tends to improve.

As soil conditions change, different communities of plants and other organisms may develop over time in a single area. This sequence of communities is called ecological succession. Succession generally follows one of two patterns. Succession is said to be primary if it occurs in a habitat that initially has no soil or organisms. An example of such a habitat is a lava field after a volcanic eruption. Succession is secondary if it occurs as a result of a disturbance. An example of such a disturbance is a forest fire that does not destroy the soil.

The plant species tend to succeed one another in patterns related to factors such as competition for soil and light. The pioneer plants, which develop first, must have the kinds of roots and other adaptations that allow them to live in the harsh conditions that exist early on. The improved soil that results from the growth of these plants then serves as home for plants that could not survive earlier. Eventually, a stable community, called climax community, will develop and remain unchanged unless conditions are disturbed significantly

The soil of an area provides the foundation for plant and animal development. Areas that have not yet developed plants tend to have poor, hard, or shallow soil. As plants begin to develop, soil tends to improve.

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As soil conditions change, different communities of plants and other organisms may develop over time in a single area. This sequence of communities is called ecological succession. Succession generally follows one of two patterns. Succession is said to be primary if it occurs in a habitat that initially has no soil or organisms. An example of such a habitat is a lava field after a volcanic eruption. Succession is secondary if it occurs as a result of a disturbance. An example of such a disturbance is a forest fire that does not destroy the soil.

The plant species tend to succeed one another in patterns related to factors such as competition for soil and light. The pioneer plants, which develop first, must have the kinds of roots and other adaptations that allow them to live in the harsh conditions that exist early on. The improved soil that results from the growth of these plants then serves as home for plants that could not survive earlier. Eventually, a stable community, called climax community, will develop and remain unchanged unless conditions are disturbed significantly

The soil of an area provides the foundation for plant and animal development. Areas that have not yet developed plants tend to have poor, hard, or shallow soil. As plants begin to develop, soil tends to improve.

As soil conditions change, different communities of plants and other organisms may develop over time in a single area. This sequence of communities is called ecological succession. Succession generally follows one of two patterns. Succession is said to be primary if it occurs in a habitat that initially has no soil or organisms. An example of such a habitat is a lava field after a volcanic eruption. Succession is secondary if it occurs as a result of a disturbance. An example of such a disturbance is a forest fire that does not destroy the soil.

The plant species tend to succeed one another in patterns related to factors such as competition for soil and light. The pioneer plants, which develop first, must have the kinds of roots and other adaptations that allow them to live in the harsh conditions that exist early on. The improved soil that results from the growth of these plants then serves as home for plants that could not survive earlier. Eventually, a stable community, called climax community, will develop and remain unchanged unless conditions are disturbed significantly



Please note that this sample paper on life is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on life, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on life will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Monday, September 24, 2012

a neice of my own

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A Niece of my own

I must have been about 10 or 11 years old when my mother got the news she was going to be a FIRST TIME GRANDMOTHER. My brother, Robert and his girlfriend, Kristen, had just found out they were expecting a baby. Big Deal, I thought. What was all the commotion about, just a baby, all they do is whine, and cry, need to be fed, need to be changed, and constantly looked after. My mother went through all the normal grandmother stages, going absolutely crazy buying everything in sight that had to do with babies. My father however, took a little bit longer to kick into the whole “grandpa groove”, but as soon as it kicked in my father took my (then 15 yr. old) sister, Marlena to J.C. Penny’s , handed her his credit card, and said “Here you go, whatever you think the baby needs, you buy it”. Needless to say Kayla was completely spoiled, as any first grandchild would be. I just sat back in amazement and thought, “All this “hubbub” over a baby?”

Well the months passed and my brother and his girlfriend ended up moving in with my mom, my step dad and me. I couldn’t believe how big Kristen had gotten. I didn’t know babies got that big. As she got further and further along in her pregnancy, I kind of stayed away. I didn’t want anything to do with that whole baby mess.

Well the day came when little Miss Kayla Lee DiGregorio was born. I wasn’t there. None of our family was, but, of course my brother got it all on tape for us. When I got home from school my mom sat me down to watch my niece’s birth. At this young age only one word sprung into my mind……..ADOPTION!!!!! I can’t honestly say watching that tape of the birth mortified me to no end, all of the screaming and everything else that comes along with child birth was too much for me.

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The day then came when Kristen came home from the hospital with Kayla. From the moment I saw her I was entranced. She was the most beautiful thing I had ever seen. So tiny and innocent, helpless even, being held in her mother’s arms. It was an instant fascination for me. From that moment on I wanted to be a part of EVERYTHING that had to do with Kayla, feeding, changing, rocking to sleep and especially PLAY TIME!!!! Oh I loved to play with her. The way she looked at everything, seeing it for the first time, it utterly amazed me! And I would sit there and wonder if I did the same thing and my mom would assure me that, yes I did. I tried to remember, or even imagine what it would be like to look at everything and see it for the first time. Although I could not remember, I could imagine. I found myself a little bit jealous of Kayla for being able to do this.

I remember the day I came home and my brother, Kristen and Kayla were gone. I was so sad. I had lost my new “toy” basically. I know that is a bad way of classifying a baby, but that is how she became to me, my favorite past time. My brother and Kristen had found their own little apartment about 15 miles from where my mom’s house, and so I saw her less and less. Time went past, my brother and Kristen broke up and went their separate ways but they kept touch for Kayla’s sake and for visitation. My brother had gotten married and Kristen had found a boyfriend. The next time I got to see Kayla was on her 1st birthday. She had grown so much and had that dark brown hair and those dark brown eyes just like my brother. She was his pride and joy, a true daddy’s girl from the start. Kayla was his world, utterly and completely.

The last time I saw Kayla was at her 1st birthday party. After that things got pretty bad with my brother and Kristen. Kristen wouldn’t let my brother see Kayla. This effected our whole family. She was the first grandbaby after all. It would be more years before my brother would see his daughter, and even then she had no idea who he was. When I was younger I didn’t know the complete impact this had on my family, most of all my brother. He tried to be strong for everyone, but how can one be strong with their heart soul, their entire world is gone?

Kayla turned 1 this past May.

This matter, though it might not seem like it could have taught me anything, has taught me a great deal. Family is the most important thing. And the bond between parents and children is eternal, and can never be broken. I am hoping that this “story” has a happy ending. I would love nothing more than to see my niece again. Now that I am older I know what an impact one small child’s birth had on my life. It made me see things in a totally different way. And I didn’t realize that Kayla was the reason for that change until I wrote this essay. So in a way, she is still teaching me and making me realize things. Such a big thing for such a little girl to do.



Please note that this sample paper on a neice of my own is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on a neice of my own, we are here to assist you. Your cheap custom college paper on a neice of my own will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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