-->

Thursday, June 30, 2011

Determined

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Determined. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Determined paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Determined, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Determined paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!






“The Journey”By Mary Oliver is about a determined person who was on a journey across the sea. People tried to talk out of taking this journey but since this person was a determined person then this would not hold this person back. This journey across the sea was a cold and foggy which on the way across the sea this person saw branches and stones. As it got later it got colder and this person’s had started to get stiff.


Mary Oliver the author of more than 10 types of poetry led to an appointment as the chair of the writing department of the Fire Arts workshop in Provincetown , Massachusetts in 17-17. She was born in 15, to the parents of Edward William Oliver and Helen M.V. Oliver. Her father was a teacher and she also later taught at Case Western Reserve University. She went to college at Ohio State University, then also later attended Vassar College a prestigious women’s college. Strongly influenced by New York poet Enda St. Vincent Millay she began to write many poems. Her poetry won the Pulitzer Prize. She also helped us honor ourselves as part of Earth.


Brittany can relate to this poem “The Journey” in a lot of ways. Brittany is a very determined person who will let nothing or no one stand in her way of finishing what she is determined to do. When her mom got in a wreck and totaled out her car Brittany walked to and from work even though she was pregnant. Also when they had took her off the schedule at work because she had had her baby and they didn’t put her back on the schedule she was determined to find her a new job because she has to have a job so that she can support her kids. She also said that she was determined to get her a car so her and her mom would not have to walk anymore when she got her income tax money. When she got her income tax she had promised to save the rest after she had got her car. Later after she had got her car she went and put $00 of it up and the rest she went and bought her kids some shoes.


Buy Determined term paper


I also can relate to this poem. This poem relates to me in many different’ ways because when I’m on a journey to do something I want to do it .It doesn’t matter what troubles I have to go through to do it but it will not stop me because I just keep going. When I go to school everday I have many times said that I’m going to quiet school but I still go because I want to graduate and want let anything stand in my way either. I also sometimes struggle in some of my classes. My mom has always told me you should not anything or anyone stand in the way of something you want to do because if you do it once you probley will always let something get in your way of doing things.


This poem also can relate back to “The Worn Path” by Eudora Welty. When she encounters several wild animals.(foxes, owls, bettles, jack rabbits, and coons) She has a hard time climbing the hill but she did not let anything hold her back because she was determined to get to town to get her grandson some medicine.When she gets to the top her dress get’s caught in a thorn bush but all she does is get it off of her and keeps going. After she escapes the bush she also have many other struggles to deal with such as crossing a creek on a log, facing memory loss, going through a barbed-wire fence, confronting a scare crow, running form a dog, and falling into a ditch. She then has come up upon a man who helps her out of the ditch and but ask her about her journey to town and then points a gun in her face. But she did not let any of this awful things stand in her way to get to were she was going even though her grandson might not live with her anymore or have already passed.





Please note that this sample paper on Determined is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Determined, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Determined will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Multinational Corporations

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Multinational Corporations. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Multinational Corporations paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Multinational Corporations, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Multinational Corporations paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Effects of Outward Foreign Direct Investment


By Rodney Bohannon


E-mail bohannon@semo.net


The Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on the Home Country


Custom Essays on Multinational Corporations


Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) could be defined as a minimum 10 percent investment of equity or capital by a firm based in one country (home economy) to an enterprise resident in another country (the host economy). The new entity then becomes a multinational enterprise (MNE). Many companies prefer FDI to exporting to gain access to new or larger markets, gain cost advantages in the host country and in response to trade barriers. There has been significant global growth of FDI since 18. Although the United States is the largest home and host country of FDI, outflows have exceeded inflows. Japan in contrast, receives much less inflows than outflows. Cultural and financial management variations between countries do seem to influence the direction of FDI flow. Strategic governmental trade policies in recent years have supported the globalization to a more efficient world economy. Companies often get governmental assistance in attaining international economies of scale and first mover advantages.


The huge inflows of FDI into the United States could be due to the falling value of the dollar in the late 180s and early 10s indicating exchange rates play a significant role in the choice of either horizontal or vertical FDI opportunities over exporting. Honda successfully used vertical FDI in the 180s by establishing high quality operations in the United States. The company utilized U.S. suppliers for machine tools and parts capitalizing on currency exchange rates and local responsiveness. FDI is often preferred over licensing in the high technology or specialized industries, and in many cost sensitive industries. Significant research is necessary to evaluate the advantages of trade vehicles and their effects on the home country. Parent companies lobby for governmental policies that support free trade in order to gain competitive advantages in developing global markets. Many businesses suffer losses for many years focusing on long-term growth potential. This paper will analyze the possible effects of FDI on the home country.


Home country governments influence the ability of firms to invest in foreign countries. The radical view of FDI was popular until the end of the 180s, and equated to the economic domination by companies rather than the economic development of nations. Radical policies were prevalent in communist countries and in Latin America in the 160s-170s. Radical regimes regularly expropriated multi-national companies and prohibited outward FDI. The collapse of communism, and the growth of the free market view marked the beginning of policies encouraging capital and technology transfers. The Smith and Ricardo Market Imperfections approach to FDI, involves maximizing gains and minimizing the costs of FDI. Most countries have adopted policies somewhere between the radical and free market approach, while still imposing some restrictions on outward FDI (Pragmatic nationalism).


There are many potential benefits of FDI on the home country. Improvement in the balance of payments can be realized through increased inward earnings, potential home country exports and foreign expertise that can be transferred back to the home economy. Opportunities to be exposed to new work practices and technology, can aid the home economy in managing and exploiting technology and knowledge-based assets. Higher living standards are also a general long-term benefit of outward FDI, due to the added value characteristics of comparative advantage, and more affordable products and services.


Outward FDI could also detract from a home countrys capital stock. A negative balance of payments is possible if earnings arent realized in an acceptable time period. Also, if FDI is a substitute for direct exports or aimed at serving the home market from a low cost location, the balance of payments could be adversely affected





Please note that this sample paper on Multinational Corporations is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Multinational Corporations, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Multinational Corporations will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Cold War

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Cold War. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Cold War paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Cold War, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Cold War paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!






The Cold War is a term used to describe the open yet restricted rivalry and hostility that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War lasted from the mid-140s to the early 10s. Numerous consequences resulted from the war, such as, the Korean War, the Truman Doctrine, and the Warsaw Pact. Although it centered originally in Europe, the Cold War animosity eventually drew the United States and the USSR into local conflicts in almost every quarter of the globe. (Legvold 1).


Hatred between the United Sates and the USSR had its roots in the fading moments of World War I. Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin resolved to withdraw Russia from the war, but in 118, the US and its allies intervened militarily in Russia to restore the collapse of the Eastern Front in their effort against Germany. The US and the European Powers took offense to Russia’s leadership. In 1, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or the USSR, was formed as a federal union of Russia under Communist control. Joseph Stalin ruled the USSR from 1 to 15. (The Cold War and post-Cold War eras An overview 1)


The United States and the USSR had become divided over political future in Poland, even before the defeat of Nazi Germany in May 145. Stalin’s forces had driven Germans out of Poland in 144 and 145 and he established the pro-Communist temporary government there. The US accused the USSR of expanding Communism in Europe and Asia. In 147, President Harry S. Truman issued the Truman Doctrine, which authorized aid to anti-Communist forces in Greece and Turkey. In the summer of 147, the US committed itself to a massive economic aid program. This program was called the Marshall Plan, after the US secretary of state George C. Marshall. It was designed to rebuild Western European economically. (Legvold )


Order custom research paper on Cold War


Many significant events that helped shape the Cold War were the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which was signed in April 14 and followed the Berlin Blockade. In 15, a serious impact to the Cold War was the death of Stalin. Meanwhile in 155, a group of Eastern European communist nations led by the USSR formed the Warsaw Pact. The Construction of the Berlin Wall in 161 was to prevent East Germans from fleeing into West Germany. (Legvold 4)


In addition to these occurrences, in June of 150, Stalin had looked as if to support the plans of North Korean Communist leader, Kim II Sung to attack South Korea. He assumed that the US and other powers would not get involved. This mistaken assumption led to the Korean War. Another instance where the Cold War turned hot was in the Vietnam War, which began in 15 and lasted until 175. It was a long bloody conflict and placed the Communist North Vietnamese and the National Liberation Front against the South Vietnamese. Also, the Cuban missile crisis informed both sides that nuclear war in pursuit of political objectives was simply too dangerous. (Legvold 4-5)


The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance of eight European Communist nations and was formed in 155 in response to West Germany’s entry into NATO. Its terms included a unified military command and the stationing of the Soviet troops in the other member states. Though its obvious goal was to protect against NATO attack, the only occasions on which Warsaw Pact troops were called into action were to overpower uprising in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovak. Although the Warsaw Pact was officially renewed in 158 for another 0 years, the political transformation of Eastern Europe at the end of the 180s strongly weakened the organization. The alliance was dissolved in 11 after the collapse of the Soviet bloc, and the Soviet troops departed. (Burant 1, 4)


The Truman Doctrine was a pronouncement by President H. Truman. On March 1, 147, he called for immediate economic and military aid to Greece, which was threatened by communist insurrection, and to Turkey, which was under pressure form Soviet expansion in the Mediterranean. While in the Cold War with the Soviet Union, the US sought to protect those countries from falling under Soviet influence after Britain announced that it could no longer give them aid. In response to Truman’s message, Congress held 400 million dollars for the two Mediterranean nations in aid. The uses of the Truman Doctrine expanded the nation’s role in checking the spread of communism in the postwar era. (Truman Doctrine 1)


The Korean War was a conflict arising after the post-World War II division of Korea. Negotiations failed to reunify the two halves, the North half being a Soviet client state and the South half being backed by the US. In 150 North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations Security Council passed a resolution calling for the assistance of all United Nations members in slowing the invasion. President Truman ordered US troops to the assistance of South Korea. At first, the North Korean forces drove the South Korean and United Nation forces down to the South tip of the Korean peninsula. Although the brilliant tactics of General D. MacArthur turned the tide in favor of the United Nations troops and advanced to near the border of North Korea and China. The Chinese then entered the war and drove the United Nations forces back south. The front line stabilized at the 8th parallel. (Johnson 1)


MacArthur favored bombing China at this point and was relieved of his command when he refused to accept Trumans decision to fight. President Eisenhower participated in the conclusion of an armistice that accepted the front line as the actual bounder between the two Koreas. At the end of the war, Soviet forces accepted surrender of Japanese forces in the North while US forces accepted surrender in the South. The war resulted in the deaths of 1. million South Koreans, 1 million Chinese, 500,000 North Koreans, 54,000 Americans, and smaller numbers of other nationals in the United Nations forces. (Cumings 1)


In 11, the USSR dissipated, and Russia and the other Soviet republics appeared as independent states. Even with all the numerous consequences that came into play during the Cold War, much of the basis for the war had disappeared. However, the collapse of the Soviet power in Eastern Europe, and then of the USSR, gave a crushing conclusion to the end of the Cold War period. (Legvold 6)











Please note that this sample paper on Cold War is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Cold War, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Cold War will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



theraputic uses of ecstasy

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on theraputic uses of ecstasy. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality theraputic uses of ecstasy paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in theraputic uses of ecstasy, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your theraputic uses of ecstasy paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Ecstasy An intense exaltation of mind and feelings; seventh heaven; bliss; euphoria; paradise; intoxication. The drug first synthesized by Merck Pharmaceuticals in Germany in 11. In 17, the first study in the literature mentioning Ecstasy was published, based upon toxicological research conducted in the early 150’s by the Army’s chemical center; around the same time a small group of therapists and researchers began to use Ecstasy; which was known as Adam, in their practices. I personally think that Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or better known as the “Raver Drug” Ecstasy, should be legalized for the use by doctors and/or Therapists as they see fit in their studies to help and bring their patients to a new level of self understanding and a new respect for life.


The drug now known as Ecstasy is the latest recreational drug to be made illegal in 185. The drug was put on trial that had many time guzzling processes. The scheduling process was based on the Controlled Substances Act of 170 which was based on three schedules. The MDMA (Ecstasy) attorney was first argued to put the drug on a Schedule ; where physicians could legally prescribe MDMA and all recreational use would be illegal; but medical treatment and scientific research could still be conducted. On the other hand Schedule 1 in the Controlled Substances Act stated that the substance must have a high potential for abuse, have no accepted medical use, and no “accepted safety” for use under medical supervision. The MDMA attorney also cited the lack of alleged harm to any patient as evidence of the safety of MDMA under medical supervision. The DEA (The United States Drug Enforcement Agency) chief attorney claimed that a drug did not have to have caused any actual harm before being placed into Schedule 1, simply that the drug had to have a high potential for abuse. He then argued that only the FDA (The United States Food and Drug Administration) could accept a drug for medical use, and without FDA approval, no drug could have accepted safety under medical supervision. After two years of hearings, Judge Young issued his ruling, recommending that MDMA be place in a Schedule . Despite the ruling, the DEA administrator placed MDMA into Schedule 1 making the drug illegal.(Rosenbaum Chapter 6) Ecstasy now an illegal substance and having a high risk of abuse can also become a damper on public events such as raves and other parts of club culture. The rampant use of the drug at these scenes has caused such bills to be pressed such as The RAVE Act (Reducing Americans Vulnerability to Ecstasy) which has recently been putting a stop to teen dance parties and clubs. Official acts against clubbers and ravers alike have been felt already; starting in Texas where teens have been arrested for handing out mints at the local rave/club party scenes where most teens show up for the music. Although there is a drug scene, the major force driving some officials is the large use of Ecstasy.





Although MDMA was put into schedule 1 it should have never gotten there. The decision to place MDMA in schedule 1 was immediately appealed to the U.S. court of appeals. In September of 187, after being reviewed, the decision of the DEA to place MDMA into schedule 1 was found to be flawed. The court agreed with the DEA saying that the drug did have a high potential for abuse; however, the court disagreed with the DEA’s assumption that congress intended that FDA approval determined accepted medical use. As an outcome, the court voided the DEA’s placement of MDMA into schedule 1 and remanded the decision back to the DEA for reconsideration. After several months the DEA placed MDMA into schedule 1 once again. The DEA devised a way to get around the FDA approval, which had been overturned in the court. A series of criteria were used that were virtually identical to current FDA approval. Since only a pharmaceutical company could afford the required studies, for which FDA permission would be impossible to secure, the DEAs new criteria was of uncertain legality. Rather than simply requiring FDA approval, the DEA broke down FDA approval into a series of criteria that looked identical to FDA approval, and then required virtually all the criteria. The real question was what was accepted medical use. The DEA argued that currently accepted medical use implies FDA approval has been clearly rejected by the courts since essentially the same issues were at stake in the current legal debate over the medical use of marijuana, the defenders of MDMAs medical use, who were drained of both patience and money, decided to lodge no further appeal. They accepted the fact that MDMA would remain in Schedule I until the legal definition of currently accepted medical use was resolved in the sense of the medical marijuana lawsuit, or until research had satisfied the FDA that MDMA was both safe and useful for human use. (Rosenbaum Chapter 6)


Custom Essays on theraputic uses of ecstasy


Is MDMA both safe and useful for human use? MDMA may have some serious long term effects on your health. Serotonin in the brain of MDMA users is 50%-80% less then healthy non-users which may lead to chronic depression and anxiety. MDMA may also impair ones memory and concentration which would eventually get gradually worse. MDMA also like most illegal drugs may dull ones intelligence. Drug users are also at risk of dehydration and even more at risk of dehydration in raves or hot parties where users may not realize there is a risk of dehydration. A 15mg pill can raise your heart beat up to 0 beats per minute over your normal rate. Also violent seizures may unlikely occur during the use of Ecstasy. MDMA may further alter the brain but for the unavailability to run tests it is a rather open category.


On another hand MDMA’s psychedelic effects may help with physical troubles. The drug can reduce addictions such as Alcoholism, medical drug addiction, heroin and some other very addictive substances. MDMA itself is not addictive therefore users do not have to fear with replacing there current addiction with another. The drug is also a proven pain killer, it is a good elixir for relieving pain and distress from terminal cancer patients and other illnesses. MDMA was also once used to treat eating disorders, post traumatic stress disorder, and help in repairing damaged relationships by allowing therapists to better understand there patients.


The best reason to make MDMA legal for therapeutic use would be because of the drugs effects on ones emotions and how it effects one mentally. Users report to have become more caring, more in touch with their spiritual nature, closer to nature and having increased happiness and self-esteem. Although personal effects vary from person to person and often are hard to explain many of the empathic and subtle effects users experience. Feelings of completeness, emotional bonding and a sense of acceptance and love for others arguably persist for years after ones first experience. MDMA’s potential for allowing inner psychological and possibly spiritual discovery often remain for the rest of the individuals life. Some clinics claim that MDMA is a potentially valuable psychotherapeutic agent because of the feelings of closeness and trust. Memories from individuals sessions also remain intact so one may learn from what they experience and what they feel. MDMA weakens psychodynamic differences and brings repressed material into waking consciousness. MDMA melts away the layers of defensiveness and anxiety that impedes treatment. Lester Grinspoon, a professor emeritus of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School said, “The synthetic drug can greatly accelerate the therapeutic process.” He also stated, “In one session, people can get past hang-ups that take six months of therapy to untangle.” Sue Stevens was severely depressed after her husband died of kidney cancer. She took many antidepressants, and therapy didn’t help. Then finally she found a psychologist who was willing to use the illegal drug ecstasy to treat depression and server trauma. In a single session, under the influence of Ecstasy, she said she was finally able to come to grips with her grief. Miss Stevens said, “Somehow I knew my husband was no longer hurting, which made it possible for me to let go.” She hasn’t taken any antidepressants since. Anecdotal reports from other mental health professionals suggest similar results from Ecstasy.


As one can see that MDMA can truly give one a new level of self understanding helping one to deal with some emotional turmoils that might not be present. I personally think that MDMA/Ecstasy, should be legalized for the use by doctors and/or Therapists as they see fit in their studies to help and bring their patients to a new level of self understanding and a new respect for life. Although the drug may have some negative effects, clearly one can see that the good out weighs the bad.





Please note that this sample paper on theraputic uses of ecstasy is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on theraputic uses of ecstasy, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on theraputic uses of ecstasy will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Tuesday, June 28, 2011

Social Changes in Japan

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Social Changes in Japan. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Social Changes in Japan paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Social Changes in Japan, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Social Changes in Japan paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Japan is a country that, like any society, has underwent many social changes in its history. These changes have had an effect on men women and children as well as the society as a whole. There are many reasons for these changes. Of all the different aspects of society affected, I am going to focus most on how this has affected women.


Compared to the U.S., the whole family system is set up very differently in Japan. It is now a patriarchal society, although more women are gaining power and entering the work force. Much has changed in recent years. In traditional Japanese families husbands work and wives take care of their children, but that is gradually disappearing. The number of two-paycheck family is increasing in Japan. The parents are too busy to take care of their children. They come to have fewer children. Another problem is that wife takes care of her husbands parents. In Japan, after people get married, more couples live with the husbands parents or live separately than live with the wifes parents. So in that case wife must take care of her husbands parents. This is not only a family matter, but it is a social welfare.


Among the many things changing in Japan is the age of brides. To be a bride used to be many girls dream. Its such a romantic sound. But nowadays, women are more realistic and active. Thirty years ago, a young woman was expected to marry between the ages of 0-4. Those who were still single at age 5 were pitied and labeled “urenokori” which means “unsold merchandise” or “tatsu” which means “overripe fruit.”


Marriage was a must. It was a source of economic power. Unmarried women were thought to be cold and unattractive. On the other hand, men who were not married past the age of 0 were just considered to be not fully adult. The average age of Japanese brides was 4.6 in 170, but in 10 it was 5.8 for women and 8.5 for men. Much has changed in the post war days.


Buy Social Changes in Japan term paper


Most jobs force women to retire once they are married and plan to have children. Because a wife has lots of things to do in the house such as looking after the children and even the husbands old parents, as well as house work, it would be difficult to keep working outside of the home. Few companies have a day care center. Traditionally, its said to be not good that a woman has a job. Formally, a husband calls his wife kanai , which means in the house . Many husbands still want their wives to be real kanai . A wife has to be a good cook, she has to keep a home neat and clean. The ideal is really cramped and working women sometimes have to feel small. Another problem is, traditionally, wives take husbands surname. Hence, wives have to adapt themselves to another lineage. All the children are educated equally but a wifes role and a husbands role hasnt changed much for years. Its no wonder getting married puts off more women.


Many Japanese women are living a much more pluralistic life these days. They are seeking to gain their independence and broaden their horizons. This is not done the same way it was done in the U.S. The movement for equality has been described as more of a quiet revolution. Japanese women have a much different sense of equality than American women. They believe that men and women can have separate roles but still be equal. For instance they view women working at home and men working outside the home as equal. In the book The Japanese Woman Traditional Image and Changing Reality it says “Japanese thinking, whatever the scientists are saying, is based on the belief that even though men and women are different in disposition, behavior and biology, they can be equal as humans, although that equality consists of a balance of advantage, opportunity and responsibility achieved over time.” Husbands willingly admit their dependence on women. Japanese women are extremely pragmatic. They are not concerned with achieving equality with men in terms of time and energy or even or even income or status rewards. They believe it is much more important for women to be able to pursue their own individual preferences.


According to the same book, relationships between sexes in Japan are described as “dansei joi,” which means “men superior, women dominant.” Until The beginning of the Muromachi age, Japan was matriarchal. The Mejiera period marked the beginning of the moderniszation of Japan. This is where things took a dramatic change and women lost a lot of their power. With the modernization of Japan, males dominated. A vertically structured society became firmly established leaving women out of the mainstream. The typical man in Japan today devotes much time to his work. He is seen as a company man. The roles men are expected to fill are narrowly defined and quite limited. The scope of a man’s world is much smaller than a woman’s in terms of options. This is the complete reversal of the situation in pre-war Japan. In the pre war days there were three Confucian laws of obedience that women were to follow. They were to be obedient to fathers when young, husbands when married, and children when old. These obediences can be rewritten today for men. They are the obedience to mothers when young, companies when adult, and wives when old.


In terms of personality, Japanese women are much different from American women. They tend to be much more passive. They tend to wait things out and not jump to conclusions. Japanese never view things as 100 percent right or 100 percent wrong. Today’s Japanese woman is also much different from the pre war Japanese woman. In Japan, women tend to be non-confrontational. They are likely to be evaluated for their compliance or “sunaosa” and concern for interpersonal harmony or “ki-kubari.” Compared to older women, young Japanese woman are much more outspoken.


Older generation brought up by parents with pre war values view men as superior. They believe women are to support men’s roles as the breadwinners. Men view women as not fully adult. They completely monopolize responsibility positions in politics, government, and financial and other international institutions. Men do not see women as an immediate threat to them selves. They don’t interfere in affairs of women and they don’t know much about what women are doing, enabling women to be more independent.


Much has changed in terms of family structure in Japan when comparing post war to pre war generations. Post war generations are brought up to believe sexual equality to be an obligation. In the post war days are when women realized they weren’t satisfied just being a mother and wife. Japanese women were very influenced by Hollywood and American movies. Women were eager to relate to their husbands as a friend and men were not enthused. Japanese men prefer to be authoritarians. Some of this quiet women’s revolution has had an effect on children. Some argue that children are being neglected more with mothers out of the home.


There are many aspects to society that have changed over time, but one that hasn’t changed much is the communication style. Communication between same sexes is very dense while communication between sexes is very minimal. Activities revolve around members of the same sex. Very rarely are men and women seen socializing together. When it comes to close personal relationships, the style is much the same. It is very distant. It is very different from in the U.S. where couples are extremely close. The Japanese see closeness as a problem. They think the closer a couple gets, the more likely divorce will be. Japanese find it very paradoxical that Americans strive so hard to be independent yet they rely on such close relationships.


Overall, the Japanese family structure has changed a great deal over time. These changes have a lot to do with pre and post war ideology. We can see changes in how woman are viewed, personality changes, and role changes. This has an effect on everyone in the society, men, women and children. Most of the changes surround women. A woman’s role in the family as well as the workplace has changed a great deal over the years.











Please note that this sample paper on Social Changes in Japan is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Social Changes in Japan, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Social Changes in Japan will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Was Iraq war justified?

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Was Iraq war justified?. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Was Iraq war justified? paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Was Iraq war justified?, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Was Iraq war justified? paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Iraq has been a center of war for the past decade. In the last decade, Iraq has developed the weapons of mass destruction, as claimed by United States. According to President Bush, these weapons of mass destructions are an open threat to this country and the rest of the world, and to ensure the world peace, these weapons of mass destructions must be eliminated before they are used against us or any other country. But according to Gerard Bradley, this war must be justified in accordance with Just war theory. The question here arises that Has United States launched an attack against Iraq to punish them for past injustices they have done to us or to simply disarm Iraq for the sake of the humanity? Bush administration claims that attack on Iraq is meant to disarm Iraq from the weapons of mass destruction, but what we don’t see is what’s going behind the scenes. Don’t we know that Iraq possesses an abundant amount of oil fields that can benefit us if we take control of their territory? But that’s not the answer. According to Bradley, an attack upon Iraq to avenge past injustices done by Saddam Hussein and his regime, or to punish Iraq for assumed involvement in the /11 attack upon New York and Washington, or to conquer the Iraqi nation or just for the sake of regime change would be wrong. He thinks that Saddam, who is in command of Iraqi armed forces, may be targeted and killed, not in response for the past injustices but to simply disarm Iraq. He also argues proportionality and proportionate means; this is to treat everyone equally regardless of their religion, sex, race, or nationality. For example, did Bush order shooting down of planes hijacked by terrorists on /11 to prevent them from using our own sources to attack on our cities and civilians? We can’t bomb our own cities and target a terrorist among several civilians. By the same token, we shouldn’t go and bomb in Iraq and Afghanistan because there are several innocent civilians living there as well and fairness requires us to treat everybody same.


Therefore, if the attack that has been launched on Iraq is meant to punish Iraqi regime for their past injustices would not be compatible with just war theory. On the other hand, if the attack is to simply disarm Iraq for the sake of the peace would be justified.







Write your Was Iraq war justified? research paper
Please note that this sample paper on Was Iraq war justified? is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Was Iraq war justified?, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Was Iraq war justified? will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Monday, June 27, 2011

YO YO YOOOoo

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on YO YO YOOOoo. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality YO YO YOOOoo paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in YO YO YOOOoo, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your YO YO YOOOoo paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



There was blood streaming down the puddles on the dirt street. Civilians running in every


direction while shrieking loudly. I couldn’t believe what my eyes were seeing. My own


sister, lying on the ground right in front of me. All I could think to do was grab her lifeless


body in my arms, and get away as quickly as I could. Debree was flying all over the place.


Order Custom Essay on YO YO YOOOoo


We always feared a bomb, but I never knew that it would actually happen. When I was


running for shelter the steps felt like miles. I never thought that it would come to this. I


never thought nightmares would be replacing my dreams. I never thought my nightmares


would come true. I am so scared. I can’t get the pictures out of my mind.


Until we meet again


-Abdesal


March , 00


0 AM-


It’s been nearly months since I last wrote, and today me and my family are moving to the


United States, where we will be safe. We won’t have to live in fear anymore. It’s going to


be hard with out Myriam, though. She lost her life that day. That moment when she took


her last breath will remain in my mind forever. Surely, we can escape the danger here in


Saudi Arabia, but that tragic day will never escape my thoughts. I am sure that it will to


haunt me forever.


I hope to find a better life in America. My family and I will be departing at one o’clock


this afternoon. The anticipation is killing me. I have never been on a plane in my life, in


ways I am quite scared but I am also very excited.


I am going to miss my friends very dearly. But if leaving Saudi Arabia is the key to a new ,


good life, then I will have to accept the hardships that come along with it. I hope that my


friends will soon leave this scary place, and reunite with me in America.


Until we meet again


-Abdesal


100 noon-


We are getting ready to leave. I am scared to start a new life. I know it is for the best


though.


Later......


The plane ride was very long. It took us about 16 hours in the air to finally reach America.


We are finally here, in the state of New Hampshire. It’s not how I expected it to be, from


all of the movies I watched. There are no large skyscrapers, and there is hardly anyone


around. No one is walking around on the streets. I hardly see anyone. Father says it is


because we are not in a large busy state like New York, I wish I was there. I am so tired.


We haven’t slept for about 4 hours, but we need to get situated in our new home. I can


already tell that life is going to be so different here in America. I already feel so much


safer. I can’t hear people screaming. I don’t look out my window and see dead people


anymore. Such a secure feeling.


March , 00


After getting sleep I feel much better. Plus, the fact that I didn’t have to fear a bomb in the


middle of the night, made me sleep much soundly. It is our second day here and I am


already loving it. I miss my friends so much though, and the thought of them back there


living a hard life makes me feel so guilty, because I now have it easy here in America.


Today I start my first day of school. I hope to fit in.


700 PM


Could it be that America is just as worse as my home country? I did not think I would be


asking myself this question, and only on my second day in this country. Today, in my first


day of school I truly realized how cruel people can be. As I walked up the steps to my new


school, I knew something was different. The stares that the Americans gave me were


appalling. It didn’t stop at the staring. That’s just the beginning. I was harassed all day,


just because I am Arab. Why is it that people can not look through your appearance, and


see the real you underneath everything else? I am starting to wonder, if this life in America


is all that different than it was back home.


March 4, 00


My second day of school was not as bad as yesterday, thankfully I met some fellow Arabs


that were willing to help me and my family settle and get used to the American customs. It


is so different being in America, everything is done so much differently.


But I guess I will just have to face these hardships. I have always been tested


physically, but never mentally. I never thought it would be harder mentally on me here.


But I can deal with it. That is what I plan to do


Until next time


-Abdesal





Please note that this sample paper on YO YO YOOOoo is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on YO YO YOOOoo, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on YO YO YOOOoo will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Proteomics

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Proteomics. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Proteomics paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Proteomics, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Proteomics paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Proteins are a basic building block of life on earth. They are the molecules that provide structure, produce energy, and allow communication, movement and reproduction within a cell. They, along with carbohydrates, amino acids, and phospholipids, are the key macromolecules that make up organisms. The body of proteins that make up an organism is referred to as its proteome. Proteomics is the study of these proteomes, including the identification of the proteins and their physiological functions.


The study of proteomics had declined in recent years, but the inception of the Human Genome Project ten years ago revived interest for many researchers. Since then, the proteomes of numerous organisms have been determined. The Human Genome Project determined that the human body contains 0,000 genes. This translates to anywhere from 00,000 to one million possible proteins. The importance of proteomics largely lies in drug design and synthesis. Hopefully, new disease markers and drug targets can be identified that will help design products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. This cannot be accomplished without knowledge of the proteome, however.


A protein is a biological polymer that usually consists of hundreds of amino acid monomers. The general structure of an amino acid is a carbon atom to which four functional groups are bonded. Three of the groups include a hydrogen atom, an amine group, and a carboxylic acid group. The fourth group, or ‘R’ group, is a hydrocarbon chain. This R group is unique to each particular amino acid and is what determines one amino acid from another.


The primary structure of a protein is its linear sequence of amino acids bound by peptide bonds between a nitrogen atom of one monomer and a carbon atom of another. Disulfide bonds between cysteine residues within the molecule stabilize it. This structure determines the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of the protein as well. Proteins are highly specialized, and a single change in an amino acid monomer can result in a completely different function, or no function at all for the protein. Thus, the primary structure is of utmost importance.


Custom Essays on Proteomics


The secondary structure of proteins consists of the primary structure formed into two possible regular structures. These are an alpha helix or a pleated sheet. These structures can organize themselves in a repeating fashion or randomly. Disulfide bonds determine the secondary structure, while hydrogen bonding also stabilizes the conformation.


A protein’s tertiary structure is the overall -D configuration of the complete protein. Amino acid residues that are far apart in a primary structure can have steric relationships in -D form, and the tertiary structure considers this. The tertiary structure is the most thermodynamically stable for the protein in a certain environment; it can change with environmental changes. This is how proteins are denatured.


A protein may consist of several subunits. The quaternary structure of a protein is made up of all of these subunits bound together by electrostatic and hydrogen bonds. Multisubunit proteins are called oligomers and all of the component parts are monomers or subunits. Proteins may also contain non-amino acid functional structures such as a lipid or a carbohydrate.


In order for proteins to be studied, they must first be isolated. In one dimension, the proteins are separated by charge based on their isoelectric points. The migration of different proteins in an electrically charged environment of graduated pH can separate them when their isoelectric points are different. The proteins move toward the pH at which they have no net charge. The main way this has been achieved is through -D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or -D PAGE. This experiment can achieve the separation of several thousand different proteins in one gel, while high resolution -D PAGE can resolve up to 10,000 proteins per gel. Coomassie blue, silver, and SYPRO Ruby Red stains are typically used to visualize the proteins’ migrations.


Mass spectrometry is a technique used for the determination of the mass of a compound; however, it is also useful in protein identification. The spectrometer ionizes the protein, and this charged molecule is sent into an analyzer on the basis of charge repulsion. This analyzer resolves the proteins based on their mass to charge ratio, thus separating them. The detector passes the information to the computer for analysis and identification. Fragmentation can cause problems in protein separation, so ionization methods that minimize formation of fragments are most useful. These methods include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization, or MALDI and electrospray ionization, or ESI.


Once a protein has been isolated, its structure must be determined. Secondary and tertiary protein structures can be found by two methods X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Both methods require that the protein be better than 5% pure for the best results, so the isolation methods are extremely important. The experimental technique can include gel or column separation, dialysis, differential centrifugation, salting out, or HPLC. The choice and order of experiments is modified to suit the protein of interest.


In order to study a protein’s structure through X-ray crystallography, it must be crystallized. The most common methods of crystallization are batch methods and vapor diffusion. A supersaturated solution is formed which causes the protein to associate with other protein molecules. The formation of this solution often requires the addition of precipitants such as polyethylene glycol or certain salts. The identification of the amino acids in the protein are again important here, since they can determine the exact reagents and chemical and physical conditions used to crystallize the protein. The crystals are then mouted and snap frozen. This is accomplished by exposing them to cryogenic liquid or gas.


In X-ray crystallography, the crystals are subjected to X-rays containing a heavy metal atom. This method can determine the protein’s secondary and tertiary structure. The X-rays are scattered by the crystal in a pattern unique to the protein. One drawback is that the radiation can damage or backscatter; keeping the crystals supercooled minimizes this side effect and allows the crystals to be stored and reused. A model of the protein is then constructed using the data translated into electron density maps. This method is highly important in drug design, since it is very precise and can reveal crucial structural data.


Nuclear magnetic resonance, or NMR, spectroscopy involves the alignment of nuclear dipoles of a sample in a magnetic field. These dipoles can change orientation back and forth in a magnetic field and absorb and emit energy for each turn. The spectrometer contains an antenna within the magnet; radio waves are pulsed by this antenna through the magnet. The sample absorbs these pulses as energy and then emits them sometime later. This time is measured and stored on the computer. Most often, pulse sequences are used that take advantage of the strong nuclear dipole of the hydrogen nucleus. The information gained from this experiment allows researchers to map the chemical bond connectivity and the spatial orientation of the proteins. This method is particularly useful in determining the function of active sites on enzymes.


NMR spectroscopy has several advantages over X-ray crystallography. One is that NMR requires no crystallization in order for the protein’s structure to be studied. Currently, this method can resolve proteins with molecular weights up to 0,000 Daltons; it is predicted that structures with molecular weights of up to 100,000 Daltons can soon be determined through this method in the coming years. Another advantage is that NMR is sensitive to motions on the millisecond to second range, which can be directly studied. Even motions as small as those of the nanosecond to microsecond scale can be studied indirectly. X-ray crystallography is also an extremely time-consuming process, and the crystalline structures can be difficult to maintain. However, the greatest advantage of NMR over X-ray crystallography is NMR’s ability to reveal the details of specific structural sites without solving the entire structure.


Current studies in proteomics include the research being done by biochemists at the University of Washington in Seattle. These scientists are studying environmental effects on the transcription and translation of the mRNA molecule. This is the nucleic acid that codes for the manufacture of proteins within the cell. In an earlier study, they reported the use of Translational State Array Analysis, or TSAA. This method allowed for the simultaneous study of mRNA level and translation. They chose Saccharomyces cereviciae as their model and arrested it with the temperature-sensitive cdc 15- allele. A control was run in which forty-eight mRNA molecules changed upon release from arrest. However, when the temperature of the cdc 15- allele was lowered from 7 C to 5 C, fifty-four molecules of mRNA were affected. Therefore, regulating the translational level seems to affect directly the response of yeast cells to external cues.


Another study done recently again involves the use of Saccharomyces cereviciae. This study, completed at Johns-Hopkins University, attempted to investigate whether indexing a proteome according to its C-terminal sequences could be of use in functional classification of proteins. The basis for this experiment is that the protein C-termini are capable of being recognition signatures for many biochemical processes. The extent to which carboxyl terminal sequences are conserved within the proteome is unknown, but this may be related to certain biological functions and therefore has great importance. The researchers analyzed the terminal sequences of Saccharomyces cereviciae and found that known and unknown terminal sequences existed. This result supports that there may be additional carboxyl terminal signals whose biological functions are not yet known.





Works Consulted


1) e-Proteomics.net. 00. Altruis Biomedical Network. 1 April 00. www.e-proteomics.net.


) Serikawa, Kyle A., et.al. “The transcriptome and its translation during recovery from cell-cycle arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.” Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 7 April 00. www.mcponline.org.


) Chung, Jean-Ju L., et.al. “Genome-wide analyses of carboxyl terminal sequences.” Molecular and Cellular Proteomics. 7 April 00. www.mcponline.org.


4) Woodman, Richard. “Scientists Complete Human Genome Project.” Yahoo News. 14 April 00. http//story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&u=/nm/000414/hl_nm/genome_project_dc_1.


Please note that this sample paper on Proteomics is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Proteomics, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Proteomics will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Sunday, June 26, 2011

Devil's Advocate

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Devil's Advocate. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Devil's Advocate paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Devil's Advocate, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Devil's Advocate paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Dear Valued Members,


We would like to thank you for another year of supporting our cause to protect the planet from the unnecessary destruction by thoughtless and apathetic companies all over the United States. Due to some of the events of the past year, we have been forced to change/create several new policies. They are as followed.


ɨ The use of foul language at any social protests is from now on prohibited.


ɨ The bi-yearly protests against large wailing ships with our tiny rafts are cancelled indefinitely.


Order custom research paper on Devil's Advocate


ɨ Any protest chants with ridicules rhyming puns will be dealt with in an even harsher manner than before.


ɨ Yearly membership to our cause will be raised to only four easy installments of $.5 (+ tax). An extra 50¢ each day you are late with a payment


ɨ The yearly Christmas party will now be held in warehouse C, on Government Blvd. down by the docks. (Due to budget cutbacks).


ɨ Human barricades to stop large construction equipment (such as Bulldozers, etc.) will no longer be one of our practices. (Paco will be missed.)


ɨ And finally, public defecation on the vehicles of company C.E.O.’s will be frowned upon and denied to the public and the press, though chuckled at behind closed doors.


Please take note of the new policies, and be prepared for three to four hundred more implications in approaching weeks.


Discussion Questions


Ch. 10


Andy Evans


1. The control panel allows the user to change properties and settings on almost every thing on the computer, including Audio, mouse, security and power management properties.


. Add and remove programs allows the user to get rid of unwanted programs, or install new ones. Security options allows the user to set passwords, and such. Printers and hardware allows the user to change the properties on printers and similar hardware.


. A theme is a coordinated look for your desktop, which affects your background, fonts, colors, sounds, mouse pointers and so on. A wallpaper is a graphic image that is stored as either a .bmp file or a .jpg file. These files are set as the back round of your desktop.


4. Tiling a background with show multiple images of the picture on the desktop, whereas centering will show one image, centered on your desktop.


5. A back round image has no real function other than to personalize your computer to yourself.


6. Power management handles how much idle time it takes for your monitor or hard drives to shut off. It can also put your computer in sleep mode after a certain amount of idle time.


7. A screen saver is used to protect your monitor from having an image burned into the screen after being there for too long. It can also be used as a mild source of security if you put a password on it.


8. Using a password for you screen saver is a way to protect your computer from being used by others while you are away.


. A theme is a coordinated look for your desktop, which affects your background, fonts, colors, sounds, mouse pointers and so on.


10. Fonts for your icons and menus can be changed in the display properties, by right clicking on your desktop, and choosing “properties”.


11. Push technology is a method of distributing information over the Web by automatically sending updates from Web sites.


1. Effects can be changed in the display properties as well. You can use them to change icons to your own choosing.


1. You can change the icons on your desktop. This is done in the display properties, under the tab labeled “desktop”.


14. With higher resolution, more stuff can fit on the screen, though all your text and images will be smaller, with higher resolution you can fit less objects on the screen, but everything is easier to read/see.


15. Standard VGA is the default screen configuration.


16. The advantages are that you will see your images more clearly and vividly, the disadvantages may be longer loading times, and more memory usage.


17. Your video card is probably the largest determining factor in your resolution settings.


18. Customizing your mouse and keyboard can be done through the control panel. Reasons for doing so would be ones own personal preference.


1. Repeat, rate and repeat delay are settings for ones screen saver. They adjust the time period between screen saver repetitions; rate refers to how fast the screen saver will go.


0. The computer uses the system date and time to schedule tasks it may need to perform. It is also helpful to have the correct date and time for your own personal use on your computer. Other programs can use the date and times, such as Microsoft word, which can auto print this information if you know how.


1. Regional settings determine what time zone you are in, which can affect the date and time.


. A scheme is a personalized set of sounds made by the user for windows. It is used to change the sounds of windows, such as the start up and shut down sounds.


. An event is an action performed by you or by your program that your computer can notify you of. Usually the notification is a sound, such as a beep if you press an incorrect key.


4. You can simply drag files or programs into the “programs” folder under the start menu directory, and make short cuts. They will then appear in your start menu under “programs”.


5. User accounts are useful if more than one person will be using the same computer. Multiple people can log into their own account, and have things personalized to them selves with out changing the settings of another user.


Sincerely yours.


Andy Evans.





Please note that this sample paper on Devil's Advocate is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Devil's Advocate, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Devil's Advocate will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



this one

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on this one. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality this one paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in this one, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your this one paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!






Home Free Essays & Book Reports Religion Thomas Aquinas Life And Works


Thomas Aquinas Life And Works


Browse essays using search option


Buy this one term paper


Access free essay links resource page


Need help with paper writing services?


Bookmark our site for future reference


Thomas Aquinas Life and Works Thomas Aquinas, born in 15 in Roccasecca Italy, began his studies as early as age five. His parents enrolled him in a monastery where he would receive education in grammar, rhetoric, and logic.(McInerny, ) His instruction was complemented with a r orous studying of the Bible. Several years later Aquinas transferred to Naples where he pursued his thirst for knowledge with the works of Aristotle.(McInerny, ) At the university Aquinas entered a program of scripture study and oration, which genera y required 10-15 years before one was granted mastery in the field. After completing a thesis on the Sentences, written by Lombard in the 1th Century, he was granted the seal of approval from the university and allowed to give his inaugural lecture wh h is a feat of great accomplishment.(McInerny, ) From this point Thomas Aquinas no longer spent his days as a student at the university but he did not stop studying Catholic history. When Aquinas had finished his stint in Naples he went to Rome in 16 During the next 6-7 years he studied the works of Aristotle. He wrote many commentaries, including On the Soul(McInerny, ) At this point Thomas Aquinas begins his works on the Catholic doctrine which gave him much fame and accreditation.(McInerny, Although Aquinas was also well known for his philosophical works and studies, his works on Catholic dogma are ever-present in all his works.(McInerny, ) “At the time of his death in 174 he was under a cloud in Paris and in 17 propositions were con mned by a commission appointed by the Bishop of Paris, among them tenets of Thomas (Aquinas). This was soon lifted, he was canonized and eventually was given the title of Common Doctor of the Church. But the subtle and delicate assimilation of Aristot that characterized his work in both philosophy and theology did not survive his death, outside the Dominican Order, and has experienced ups and downs ever since.”(McInerny, ) When Aquinas attacked the Dominican House of studies in his propositions, f their lack of logic and reasoning, he was scornfully looked upon by his contemporaries, but soon after his death his works were recognized for their insight and intellectualism which allowed for his canonization. In Aquinas’s seminal work Summa Theolo ca the author asks the question “Whether providence is suitably assigned to God?”(Pegis, -Vol 1) and provides the following answer “It seems that providence is not becoming to God. For providence, according to Tully, is a part of prudence. But sinc according to the Philosopher, prudence gives good counsel, it cannot belong to God, Who never has any doubt for which He should take counsel. Therefore providence cannot belong to God.”(Pegis, -Vol 1) This article focuses on the ideological value free will and how Catholics believe that free will was given from God to human’s and thus allows them to act of their own valition. Aquinas also based some of his works on the belief of the soul, and whether or not is an actual “material body or more the metaphysical”(Kenny, 1) type of being. “The soul, he concludes, which is the primary principle of life, is not a body, but an tuality of the body, just as heat, which is the principal of heating, is not a body, but a certain actuality of a body.”(Kenny,10) Aquinas tackles the concept of the actual tangibility of the soul, and thus states that the soul is not a being, but wit ut the soul the body wouldn’t exist. “Aquinass accomplishment was immense; his work marks one of the few great culmination’s in the history of philosophy. After Aquinas, Western philosophers could choose only between humbly following him and striking off in some altogether different di ction. In the centuries immediately following his death, the dominant tendency, even among Roman Catholic thinkers, was to adopt the second alternative. Interest in Thomist philosophy began to revive, however, toward the end of the 1th century. In the cyclical Aeterni Patris (Of the Eternal Father, 187), Pope Leo XIII recommended that St. Thomass philosophy be made the basis of instruction in all Roman Catholic schools. Pope Pius XII, in the encyclical Humani Generis (Of the Human Race, 150), affi ed that the Thomist philosophy is the surest guide to Roman Catholic doctrine and discouraged all departures from it. Thomism remains a leading school of contemporary thought. Among the thinkers, Roman Catholic and non-Roman Catholic alike, who have ope ted within the Thomist framework have been the French philosophers Jacques Maritain and √Čtienne Gilson.”(Microsoft Encarta, ) “Around 150-151 Aquinas was ordained a priest. From the Fall of 15 to the Spring of 15, Aquinas taught at the Dominican house of studies in Paris. It was during this time that he lectured on the Sentences of Peter Lombard. Between March and ne 17 of 156, he was incepted as master of theology, and was regent master in theology at Paris until 15, during which time he began his Summa contra gentiles. 15 found Aquinas leaving Paris for Naples, where he stayed until the Fall of 161 as he of the Dominican house of studies. From September of that same year to September of 156, Aquinas was at Orvieto as a lector, where he completed the Summa contra gentiles. After a time at Rome in 156 and Vitero in 167 (his great work, the Summa the ogiae was begun in 166), he took up his second Parisian regency from January of 16 to 17. This was followed by his assignment to Naples in 17 as regent of theology. December 6, 17 saw the cessation of his writing, after a physical and mental eakdown from years of over work. While going north to attend the Council of Lyon, Thomas Aquinas injured his head, fell ill and died in the Cistercian abbey of Fossanova on March 7, 174.”(Loughlin, 1) This chronicles Thomas Aquinas’s life of servitud to the Roman Catholic church and the advancement of the church’s teachings while Aquinas was regent to certain areas of Europe. Aquinas was the most prolific theologian of not only his time, but any time. “More successfully than any other theologian or philosopher, Aquinas organized the knowledge of his time in the service of his faith. In his effort to reconcile faith with i ellect, he created a philosophical synthesis of the works and teachings of Aristotle and other classic sages; of Augustine and other church fathers; of Averro�s, Avicenna, and other Islamic scholars; of Jewish thinkers such as Maimonides and Soloman ben ehuda ibn Gabirol; and his predecessors in the Scholastic Tradition. This synthesis he brought into line with the Bible and Roman Catholic doctrine.”(Microsoft Encarta, 1) “Finally, by refusing to identify philosophy itself with Aristotelianism, by silently bending Aristotle to the cause of philosophy, and often by freely criticizing him, St. Thomas Aquinas was able to make the Philosopher a worthy vehicle of reason with Christian thought”(Pegis, XL-Vol 1) This passage says that St. Thomas was able to show that Philosophy does have its place in religion, and not only that but one cannot exist without the other. Thomas Aquinas’s life was filled with servitude and obedience to his faith. He dedicated himself to the study of faith and its principles. He delved deeply into the questions asked by man in his works Summa Theologi√¶. This work contains hundreds of lf posed questions, along with their answers, that help the Roman Catholic to better understand their faith. Aquinas also tackles the subject of angels in this work (Pegis, 54-Vol 1). Aquinas spent years working on this masterful collection of argumen , that ultimately lead to his canonization. (Online Pub, McIrnery) St. Aquinas’s teachings and beliefs lead to the slow acceptance of philosophy to Roman Catholicism. “Thomas’s theological writings became regulative of the Catholic Church and his close textual commentaries on Aristotle represent a cultural resource w ch is now receiving increased recognition.”(Online Pub, McIrnery) Since this event, the broad scope of Aquinas’s teachings and works are reflected in the consciousness of the contemporary Roman Catholic. Ideas such as, the belief in the soul, use of l ic to determine moral ethics, and a better understanding of the nature of God. Aquinas’s works were so powerful that like-minded people began to follow his teachings, they were known as “Thomists”.(Online Pub, McIrnery 5) Although this was not an offshoot of the already splintered Catholics, Aquinas introduced a new area to be k wn as “Christian Philosophy”(Online Pub, McIrnery 4). “Many of the questions that can be raised philosophically are such that the believer already has answers to them -- from his religious faith.”(Online Pub, McIrnery 4) This idea reveals that philoso y in a religion is no longer heresy, but needed to have a better grasp of religious beliefs and questions. St. Thomas Aquinas was able to grasp theological ideas and values from the inception of his studies. He was able to write numerous works(Microsoft Encarta, 18) which impacted the church and allowed for a progressive change. Aquinas teachings also a owed for the advancement of theological value and understanding.


Bibliography


1. Pegis, Anton C. Introduction to Saint Thomas Aquinas Random House 148 . ------ Basic Writings of Saint Thomas Aquinas-Volume One Random House 145 . McDermott. Timothy. Summa Theologi√¶; A Concise Translation Christian Classics Inc 18 4. Eco, Umberto. The Aesthitics of Thomas Aquinas Trans. Hugh Brendin. Cambridge President and Fellows of Harvard College, 188 5. Kenny, Anthony. Aquinas On Mind New York, London Routledge 1 Internet Sources 1. Loughlin, Stephen. Stephen’s PGP Public Key and Info. October , 18 . “Saint Thomas Aquinas” Microsoft®Encarta® Microsoft Corporation 18 , . “Saint Thomas Aquinas.” Online Publication. McInerny.1@nd.edu 1, July 1


Words 1517


Resources


Can`t Find Your Essay? Our writers can help you with any essay topic, any form of report, any essay volume and level of writing. Fill in the request form to order your custom written essay or book report today!


Category Free Essays & Book Reports








Please note that this sample paper on this one is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on this one, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on this one will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Saturday, June 25, 2011

pool sharks

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on pool sharks. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality pool sharks paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in pool sharks, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your pool sharks paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



In recent years a agroup of scientist in alaska have concluded studies that nurse sharks will indeed llive and reproduce in a olympic size swimming pool. The scientist began the experiment as a prank aginst one of thier collegues. The clorine in the water triggered a growth hormaone and caused the sharks to grow to be enormous. They were then remmoved and transported to a bigger pool where they have recently reproduced. The scientist know are begining the experiment on spsort fish. what a day you would have out on the lake catching 100 pound bass!aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaaa a aaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa aaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaaa aaaaaaa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a a aaaaa aa aa a a a a a a a a a a a a a a dsa fa t aw rt aw rt awer t wer tw ert wert w rt wer tw r tw r tw r t wer ewrt we twet we we t w tw r tw er wer we rwer tw we er we re we rt we t we rwert wert ewr t wer we rt wer tw ert wer t e w we tr w rtwe re erw we t we rt w er ew we ew we t w tr we we w t t w tw tw w tw tw trw tw rw tw ert wer tw t w wer wt wer wer wer rw ttw wer t t tr tr tr t t wtwwt t t tte t 5r tr wt wt we t ewrt wer twet we twe wer twe wer we t rewr wer twer ewr we t w we rt wer twer twe rt wer wer rt re wer re er er re TWEETER! DAS AS ASD FA DF ASD F ASDF ASD SD F ASF DF ASD FASDF AS F AS F ASD F A FASF ASDF ASD F ASD FA DF ASD F A FADF AS DF SAD F ASD FAS DF ASD FASDF ASD F AS FA DF ADF


DO NOT USE. DONT HOLD IT AGINST ME JUST WANTING TO USE THE SITE


Please note that this sample paper on pool sharks is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on pool sharks, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on pool sharks will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Women are the enemy in Hamlet.

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on Women are the enemy in Hamlet.. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality Women are the enemy in Hamlet. paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in Women are the enemy in Hamlet., therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your Women are the enemy in Hamlet. paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



Harold Bloom, a critic for Hamlet, by William Shakespeare states numerous opinions about the play. In “Shakespeare Invention of the Human”, by Bloom, he says, “The charismatic is compelled to a physician’s authority despite himself (Hamlet); Claudius is merely an accident; Hamlet’s only persuasive enemy is Hamlet himself.” Although Hamlet’s own mind seems to be a problem, it is the women of the play, Gertrude and Ophelia, who are the true enemies of Hamlet.


In Shakespeare’s play, the driving forces seem to be greed and revenge. Yet, if someone searches more, he or she will find motives other than these in the play. If the reader asks himself what is the main reason for revenge in the play they will find that there is a woman at the center of it. In the beginning of the play the audience learns that the king has died and later discovers that it was his brother Claudius who killed him. Besides Claudius’s desire for the crown, what else might have motivated him to kill his brother? The answer is the queen, who he married barely a month after her husband’s death. The king himself admits this in his prayer, saying, “Of those effects for which I did the murder-/ my crown, mine own ambition, and my queen” (..57-58).


Hamlet’s actions also revolve around his mother. Part of his quest for revenge may seem only to be brought on by his love of his father, but this is not so. He is, at the same time, angry with his mother, jealous of her attention to Claudius, and desperately wishing for her love. He makes fun of her with hateful comments, “You are the queen, your brother’s wife, / And � would it were not so � you are my mother” (.4.16-17), but he loves her just the same. His love for her is first expressed without words when he stays in Denmark instead of returning to college just because she asks him to.


Also, Gertrude influenced Hamlet somewhat throughout the course of the play. Hamlet was very angered by his mother’s remarriage. A few months after his father’s ghost appeared to him and revealed that Claudius was responsible for the death of Hamlet’s father. Hamlet even termed the marriage as incest. Hamlet’s anger is displayed when he throws his mother on the bed and says, “…Frailty, thy name is woman-“(1..48). This shows his extent of anger because he makes a generalization that all women are weak. As a result of his mother’s actions, Hamlet strives to seek revenge against Claudius for the death of his father. In order to marry Gertrude, Claudius kills his brother. Therefore, Gertrude is the driving factor for the setup of the play.


Write your Women are the enemy in Hamlet. research paper


Then, Ophelia, the daughter of Polonius, sister of Laertes, and girlfriend of Hamlet, dies. Laertes blames Hamlet, thinking that Ophelia killed herself over what she thought was her useless love for Hamlet. When Gertrude speaks of Hamlet at Ophelia’s grave site Leartes angrily says, “O treble woe/ Fall ten times treble on that curse head/ Whose wicked deed they most ingenious sense/ Deprived thee of” (5.1.-)! When Hamlet steps forward and identifies himself Laertes attacks him, screaming, “The devil take thy soul” (5.1.4)! Hamlet’s own madness is aroused by Laertes’s threatening words and complaints that Hamlet cared nothing for Ophelia and suffers not over her death. “Why, I will fight with him upon this theme/ Until me eyelids will no longer wag” (5.1.5-54). Hamlet cried out, “I loved Ophelia. Forty thousand brothers/ Could not, with all their quantity of love,/ make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her” (5.1.56-58)? So, Ophelia’s death turned these two friends against each other and also, along with the death of his father, made Laertes weak to Claudius’s influence when he convinces Laertes to kill Hamlet.


Then, the events in the end of the play were brought about, once again, because of Hamlet’s strong love for his mother. We cannot say for sure if Hamlet would or would not have killed Claudius that day if his mother had not died, but whatever Hamlet’s plan was, the situation was forgotten in the instant he discovered Gertrude was poisoned. He had enough anger and jealousy burning in him to make him want to kill Claudius and enough chances during the play to do it, but always stops, even though he knows that if he does not kill Claudius, then Claudius will certainly see him dead. It is not until his mother is poisoned by Claudius’s hand that his mind really snaps and all of his pain, anger, and grief are let loose as he kills Claudius with the poisoned sword and then forces the rest of the poisoned drink down his throat, crying, “Here, thou incestuous murderous, damned Dane,/ Drink off this potion. Is thy union here?/ Follow my mother” (5..-5)


Although Bloom states that Hamlet is his own enemy, it is the women who are the root of all the evil. Gertrude and Ophelia cause dramatic scenes to happen that are somewhat unclear to the reader, but when connecting everything together, the women are to blame. Hamlet is guilty of not controlling of himself in an elegant matter, but if he didn’t there would be no drama in Shakespeare’s famous play.





Please note that this sample paper on Women are the enemy in Hamlet. is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Women are the enemy in Hamlet., we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Women are the enemy in Hamlet. will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!



Friday, June 24, 2011

High temperature material on aerinautics engine

If you order your research paper from our custom writing service you will receive a perfectly written assignment on High temperature material on aerinautics engine. What we need from you is to provide us with your detailed paper instructions for our experienced writers to follow all of your specific writing requirements. Specify your order details, state the exact number of pages required and our custom writing professionals will deliver the best quality High temperature material on aerinautics engine paper right on time.

Out staff of freelance writers includes over 120 experts proficient in High temperature material on aerinautics engine, therefore you can rest assured that your assignment will be handled by only top rated specialists. Order your High temperature material on aerinautics engine paper at affordable prices with livepaperhelp.com!



High temperature


materials


for aero-engines


George French


Custom writing service can write essays on High temperature material on aerinautics engine


Philippe Grangier


Richard Halliday


Steven Farmer


Summary


1- Introduction


- Turbine composition and temperature


- Metals alloys


4- Ceramics


5- Thermal barrier coatings


6- Conclusion


7- Bibliography


Introduction


Since Sir Isaac Newton, in the 18th century, was the first to theorise that a rearward-channelled explosion could propel a machine forward at a great rate of speed, people have started to imagine that they could fly.


In 10, the Wright Brothers flew, The Flyer, with a 1 horse power gas powered engine.


But it was Frank Whittle, a British pilot, who designed the first turbo jet engine in 10. The first Whittle engine successfully flew in April, 17. This engine featured a multistage compressor, and a combustion chamber, a single stage turbine and a nozzle.


The first jet aeroplane to successfully use this type of engine was the German Heinkel He 178 invented by Hans Von Ohain. It was the worlds first turbojet powered flight.


Since this date, the engineers start to developed this kind of engine because they can offer more power to make the plane fly faster and Higher. Improvements in the performance of gas turbine have been intimately linked to the development of materials technologies for high-temperature components.


It¡¦s now over half a century since Franck Whittle and Otto Von Ohain demonstrated the practicality of aircraft powered by gas turbines. Engine performance and durability have been limited by the availability of suitable materials for the very high temperatures and high stresses endured by many of the components. Over the past 50-60 year, materials have been steadily developed so that peak metal temperatures of over 1100„aC¡K


Now the hot parts of the engine require materials which can operate at 1000„aC, the cooler parts at 600„aC. Furthermore, the environment is very harsh chemically and mechanical, with very large forces generated by the high rotational speeds and even the possibility of birds being sucked into the engine!


The maximum service temperature chart (on the bottom) is a useful way of identifying new possibilities for materials development. By drawing lines at 600¢XC and 1000¢XC it is possible to identify the materials classes which might be suitable in this case, namely metals and ceramics.


But the figure below shows that the remarkable improvements in aero-engine performance have come about because the materials designer has been able to provide the engineer with materials can be used at hotter temperatures. Higher engine temperatures are needed so that the engines can run more efficiently, while weight reductions require stiffer, stronger, and lighter materials. What will the future reserved to the engineers? The next generation of gas turbine will reach temperature of 1600„aC, so we need to foresee what the next generation of high temperature material will be.


At the present time titanium and nickel alloys are used for the low and high temperature parts, but some other solution have already been developed for allow highest temperature in aero-engine, and the future research are concerned with ceramics which appear to have the best high temperature properties.


That¡¦s why this report reviews some of the existing solutions with today¡¦s alloys, and try to explain how metal alloy can be use. It show also how we can use a combination of ceramics coatings and metal alloy to increase the operating temperature until the next development of ceramics.


Turbine composition and temperature


The basic mechanical arrangement of a gas turbine is relatively simple. It consists of only four parts


1. The compressor which is used to increase the pressure (and temperature) of the inlet air.


. One or a number of combustion chambers in which fuel is injected into the high-pressure air as a fine spray, and burned, thereby heating the air. The pressure remains (nearly) constant during combustion, but as the temperature rises, each kilogram of hot air needs to occupy a larger volume than it did when cold and therefore expands through the turbine.


. The turbine which converts some of this temperature rise to rotational energy. This energy is used to drive the compressor.


4. The exhaust nozzle which accelerates the air using the remainder of the energy added in the combustor, producing a high velocity jet exhaust.


The amount of fuel added to the air will depend upon the temperature rise required. However, the maximum temperature is limited to within the range of 850 to 1700 ¢XC by the materials from which the turbine blades and nozzles are made. The air has already been heated to between 00 and 550 ¢XC by the work done in the compressor giving a temperature rise requirement of 650 to 1150 ¢XC from the combustion process


So the continuous flow of gas to which the turbine is exposed may enter the turbine at a temperature between 850 and 1700 ¢XC which is far above the melting point of current materials technology.


That¡¦s why, until the development of the high temperature material, engineers has developed tricks to cool the material used in their aero-engine. Because by cooling the material during its operation, they can increase the operating temperature of the turbine.


Materials scientists have worked hard to increase the operating temperature of todays alloys, and for reaching this aims they have made the following modification and use the following tricks


- turbine blades are grown as single crystals, because these are more resistant to creep (gradual changes in dimensions under stress and temperature);


- current nickel superalloys contain expensive alloying elements such as Hafnium and Rhenium in order to increase their high temperature performance;


- turbine blades have little networks of holes to air-cool the blade surface.


Metals alloys


In Aero Engines the development of highly engineered super alloys has become necessary.


Developments in advanced materials have contributed to the spectacular progress in thrust-to-weight ratio of the aero engine. And also this has enabled significant improvements in performance and reliability. Most modern jet engines contain at least 50% nickel based superalloys. This has been achieved mainly through the substitution of titanium and nickel alloys for steel. Aluminium has virtually disappeared from the aero engine, and the future projection illustrates the potential for composites of various types. the design of the aero engine requires a much wider range of materials than the airframe due to the large temperature range at which it must be run. The airframe is still mainly aluminium due to the lower requirements.


Aeropropulsion turbines will eventually use more of the light advanced high-temperature materials such as intermetallics, carbon matrix composites, and metal matrix composites. However, enhancements in coatings and cooling have extended the performance and value of nickel-based superalloys, so they are not yet out of the running.


In aero-engines, the blade of the high pressure turbine was for a long time the highest of the high technology in the aero gas turbine, and despite the complexity of the modern fan blade, the challenge it provides does not reduce. The ability to run at increasingly high gas temperatures has resulted from a combination of material improvements and the development of more sophisticated arrangements for internal and external cooling


1-Modern Alloys


A modern turbine blade alloy is complex in that it contains up to ten significant alloying elements, but its microstructure is very simple. The structure is analogous to an `Inca wall, which consisted of rectangular blocks of stone stacked in a regular array with narrow bands of cement to hold them together.


In the alloy case the `blocks are an intermetallic compound with the approximate composition Ni(Al,Ta), whereas the `cement is a nickel solid solution containing chromium, tungsten and rhenium. Magnesium alloys.


Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by aerospace industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions such as high temperature ranges. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium. This has been a major factor in the widespread use of magnesium alloy castings and wrought products.


A further requirement in recent years has been for superior corrosion performance and dramatic improvements have been demonstrated for new magnesium alloys. Improvements in mechanical properties and corrosion resistance have led to greater interest in magnesium alloys for aerospace and speciality applications.


-Titanium alloys.


The high strength and low density of titanium and its alloys have from the first ensured a positive role for the metal in aero-engine applications. It is difficult to imagine how current levels of performance, engine power to weight ratios, strength, aircraft speed and range and other critical factors could be achieved without titanium.


Since the 150¡¦s, this temperature level has risen by about 00¢XC. Titanium alloys have progressively improved in temperature capability up to 60¢XC. Titanium alloys capable of operating at temperatures from sub zero to 600¢XC are used in engines for discs, blades, shafts and casings from the front fan to the last stage of the high pressure compressor, and at the rear end of the engine for lightly loaded fabrications such as plug and nozzle assemblies. This would allow most compressors to be designed completely in titanium. However, practice in the United States has been to switch at approximately 50¢XC to nickel alloys and incur a weight penalty.


-Beryllium.


The metal its self has a steel grey appearance. It has an extremely high melting point 10¢XC (54¢XF) and is the most lightweight except for magnesium of the common metals. It is nonmagnetic, has approximately 40% the electrical conductivity of copper and has a modulus of elasticity one third greater that of steel. It exhibits high permeability to X-rays. Beryllium powder can be hot pressed into blocks or billet form and can be thermo-mechanically processed to extrude billet and cross-rolled sheet. Beryllium parts are generally made by machining from blocks. This tends to leave behind a damaged surface layer, which is removed by etching for stressed applications.


Beryllium is used in applications where it is required for materials to be non sparking, non-magnetic and for components to be light weight, stiff and dimensionally stable. It can be used as an alloying element to produce beryllium-aluminium, beryllium-copper, and beryllium-nickel alloys.


4-Nickel.


Nickel based alloys dominate the high temperature area of aero engines mainly due to the increase of stable intermetallic super phases which strengthens the nickel matrix. Nickel based alloys are used for stationary components in aero engines. Modern jet engines contain at least 50% nickel based super alloys.


5-Super alloys.


Superalloys have always contained phases of this type, but in recent years the titanium in the original intermetallic has been replaced by tantalum. This change gave improved high temperature strength, and also improved oxidation resistance. However, the biggest change has occurred in the nickel, where high levels of tungsten and rhenium are present. These elements are very effective in solution strengthening.


6-Intermetallics.


Another material development project is the use of intermetallics. Compounds of nickel/aluminium and titanium/aluminium have been investigated with current emphasis on the latter. Most intermetallic compounds are brittle at room temperature. The first applications are therefore likely to be in small components such static and rotating compressor airfoils where the advantages over titanium include higher specific strength and stiffness as well as improved temperature and fire resistance.


The use of these materials could extend to more critical components. One possible application is as an alternative matrix to the titanium alloy in a metal matrix composite, although such an application will require alternative fibres, to minimise any thermal expansion mismatch, and novel processing technology.


7-The Future.


Eventually, operating temperatures up to about 800¢XC will be possible, and intermetallics could offer a very attractive weight saving of around 50% compared with nickel-based alloys. It is estimated that over the next twenty years a 00¢XC increase in turbine entry gas temperature will be required to meet the airlines demand for improved performance. Some of this increase will be made possible by the further adoption of thermal barrier coatings. These coatings are produced from ceramic pre-cursors and have the potential to contribute about 100¢XC through the protection they provide.


Ceramics


1-History


Since the mid-140s, researchers have investigated ceramic materials as a way to improve the performance of aero-engines, lengthen their life span, and reduce their fuel consumption substantially. Yet ceramics are just now approaching their first commercial use in turbines.





The problems involved have made progress slow. The material in modern turbines must survive temperatures of more than 1,000¢XC for thousands of hours; high thermal stresses caused by rapid temperature changes and large temperature gradients; high mechanical stresses; low and high frequency vibration loading; chemical reactions with adjacent components; oxidation; corrosion; and effects such as creep, stress rupture, and cyclic fatigue. Early ceramic materials were not able to withstand these conditions, and early turbine-component designs were not compatible with brittle materials.


A variety of oxides, borides, carbides, and cermets were evaluated in the 140s and 150s for potential use as turbine components. Some ceramics had favourable strength and oxidation resistance, but none survived the thermal shock conditions imposed by an engine. Some cermets could survive thermal shock and impact conditions but did not have adequate oxidation resistance and stress rupture life.


Interest was renewed in ceramics for turbines when new materials in the silicon nitride and silicon carbide families of ceramics were developed during the 160s. These materials had better thermal shock resistance, largely due to a combination of low thermal expansion, high strength, and moderate thermal conductivity. The first promising silicon nitride and silicon carbide materials were fabricated by reaction sintering. The silicon nitride was prepared by a reaction of a powder compact of silicon with nitrogen to form silicon nitride. This resulted in a reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) material. It was found that this material was strong (140MPa) up to a high temperature(1,400¢XC), but the material weakened over time when exposed at high temperature to an oxidising atmosphere. The silicon carbide was prepared by reacting a mixed powder compact of silicon carbide plus carbon with molten silicon to form an SiC-bonded silicon carbide, with any pores filled with silicon. Early reaction-sintered silicon carbide materials had strength that was similar to RBSN and superior oxidation resistance, making it more desirable.


Major efforts have been conducted world-wide since the early 170s to improve the high-temperature properties of silicon nitride. Some have focused on finding a composition with a higher-temperature intergranular glass phase; others have focused on compositions that can be heat-treated to crystallise the grain-boundary phase and avoid the glass phase. Only recently have the properties been adequate to consider long-life applications.


Ceramic turbine components are fabricated starting with powders of the raw materials. The quality of the final part depends on the quality of the starting powder and on each step in the fabrication process. Early powders were coarse and contained impurities, and they were not widely available until the mid-170s. Around that time, researchers demonstrated that silicon nitride and silicon carbide could be densified by pressureless sintering if the starting powder was of very small particle size. Powder synthesis techniques were refined during the 180s, making powders with a smaller particle size and relatively high purity available.


Research during the 10s has been concerned with improving the properties of sintered materials to minimise flaw size and refining the microstructure to increase fracture toughness. Higher fracture toughness means a larger critical flaw size for a given stress. Whereas the early materials had a critical flaw size around 150 microns for a 00MPa stress, the improved materials can withstand flaws several times larger. Fracture toughness is extremely important in aero-engine materials due to the high rotational speeds involved, and also to withstand bird strikes etc.


-Present


At the moment, toughness means that ceramics are still not used on a large scale in aero-engines although it has the best high temperature properties





Property Metals Ceramics


Toughness (bird strikes) Good Very Poor


Corrosion/oxidation resistance Fair Good


Forming Good (forging) Fair (sintering)


Joining Good Difficult


Creep resitance Fair Good


Cost High High








-Future


Over the next 0 years, demand for improved performance means that gas entry temperatures will have to rise by 00„aC.


Looking at this table shows that the strength and especially the maximum service temperatures of ceramics means that some form of ceramic must be considered which will overcome the toughness limitation. One method is the use of ceramics as Thermal Barrier Coatings.


Thermal barrier coatings


So far ceramic components have not found application within aero engines because no one has yet been able to develop a method for increasing the fracture toughness of ceramics to a level which would allow them to survive application in the hottest parts of such engines. Although metals have a significantly higher fracture toughness, they are also less resistant to high temperatures, which have the effect of accelerating corrosion and creep. The turbine blades, which experience high centrifugal forces due to the high rotation speeds, are at the greatest risk of creep. Indeed it is known that the creep life of turbine blades is halved for every 10-15„aC increase in operating temperature.


A common method for combining the best qualities of both types of material is to use a thermal barrier coating (TBC). TBC¡¦s are ceramic coatings which are applied to the surface of the metal components to insulate them from the high surrounding temperatures. The coatings are applied to parts such as burner cans, flame holders or turbine vane segments in order to protect the substrate material from too high operating temperatures or too severe thermal shocks.


The most widely used TBC is yttria stabilised zirconia (ZrO-8%YO). The main advantages of using yttria stabilised zirconia as a TBC material lies in its low thermal conductivity, a thermal expansion coefficient close to that of the substrate material, and a


good resistance to thermal shocks.


It is important that the thermal expansion coefficient is similar to that of the substrate metal because otherwise a significant thermal strain would be imposed as the coating expands by a greater or lesser amount than the substrate. If this were to happen then the repeated stress caused by this thermal strain would cause the coating to fail in a relatively short time span.


The lifetime of the coating is decided both by its stability at the high operating temperatures and by its adhesion to the component under cyclic thermal loading. Even though the coating is chosen so that it has a similar thermal expansion coefficient to the substrate material, relatively minor thermal strains can be accentuated by the high temperatures and the regular cycles experienced by the engines. The regular rapid temperature changes from atmospheric temperature when shut down, to operating temperature can still result in fatigue failure of the bond between the coating and the substrate.


It is for this reason that typical coatings consist of a bonding layer between the component and the thermal barrier coating. The bond coat enhances the adhesion of the component with the overlying coating and will usually also be required to act as a barrier to prevent oxidation of the metal component underneath. This is because the TBC on it¡¦s own is relatively porous and, although provides excellent thermal insulation, it provides minimal protection against corrosion. Obviously any corrosion of the surface of the substrate would result in the bond between the coating and the substrate becoming weaker, potentially to the point where it fails.


The main limitations of yttria stabilised zirconia are that at high temperatures the material properties begin to change. Densification due to sintering and phase transformation to more stable phases involving volume expansions are obviously undesirable phenomena that can be seen at temperatures above 150 ¢XC. This temperature is therefore often used as the maximum design temperature when working with this material.


Because of these limitations, alternatives to YSZ are being sought as temperatures are expected to continue to rise as higher efficiency engines having higher power to weight ratios are being designed. The main demand for these higher performance engines predictably comes from the military, because of a strong trend in the development of military engines to decrease the amount of cooling media used for cooling of the components in the hot sections of the engine, which will increase the thermal load on turbine components. Calculations indicate coating surface temperatures as high as 1400 ¢XC in future applications. This will most possibly require development of new coating materials with high temperature stability. This means that a suitable material will undergo no severe phase transformations and a have a high resistance to sintering, but still have a low thermal conductivity coefficient and a high resistance to thermal shock failure.


One possible way to increase the operating temperature of the TBC is simply to use a thicker coating. Current TBC¡¦s are around 0.-0.4mm thick. However, standard production procedures of thick TBC¡¦s (1 mm) result in coatings with an insufficient thermal shock life. The main problem with thick thermal barrier coatings is that the higher temperature gradient across the material results in higher internal stresses which in turn lead to higher stresses at the interface between the coating and the bonding layer between the substrate and the coating.


This means that over time there is a greater risk that a thick TBC will fail due to the fatigue caused at the bond interface by the thermal cycling associated with aero engines.


Until now, studies with thick TBC¡¦s have been with YSZ which still has an operating limit of 150„aC because it is unstable at higher temperatures and the strain tolerance of the coating can be lost rapidly if too high coating surface temperatures are allowed.


Because of this temperature ceiling of YSZ, there is a continual need to try to find a better material for the job. Certain rare earth zirconates such as GdZrO7 and SmZrO7, have been shown to have lower thermal conductivity than YSZ, but the fact that YSZ is stable at high temperatures when in contact with alumina, which is the oxide formed on the surface of all present bond coat alloys at high temperatures, and the fact that YSZ has a similar thermal expansion coefficient to the nickel based substrate material, will make it hard to replace as a TBC.


Conclusion


The temperature in the aero engine is still increasing and materials scientists have to develop more and more suitable materials. By looking at the development of aero engine, we see that the next generation of aero engine will work at 1600„aC. Ceramics are not available because of their resistance properties, but by combination of the thermal barrier coatings and the metals alloys which have been developed since a long time, we can imagine that scientists have already find the solution for this next generation of engine.


But the progress in aero engine science will not stop, and the working temperature of aero engine will keep increase. But the research on the ceramics will go on because they seem to have many qualities required for work at high temperature, and they are already use in ceramic coatings. But they can maybe offer more if we can use them alone. Ceramics, the way ahead? The future will tell us¡K


Bibliography


Materials world,vol.4,16, ¡¨advanced materials mean advanced engine¡¨


Stewart Miller


¡§The contribution of advanced high-temperature materials to the future of aero-engine¡¨


Article from Proc Instn Mech Engrs Vol 15 Part L


M R Winstone, A Partridge, J W Brooks,


¡§High temperature structural materials¡¨


Chapman and Hall, 16


¡§Advantages/disadvantages of various TBC systems as perceived by engine manufacturer¡¨


Article from thermal barrier coatings, nato agard report 8, 18


P Morrell , D S Rickerbery


¡§Engineering approaches to high temperature design¡¨


B Wilshire and D.R J Owen





Please note that this sample paper on High temperature material on aerinautics engine is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on High temperature material on aerinautics engine, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on High temperature material on aerinautics engine will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

Order your authentic assignment from livepaperhelp.com and you will be amazed at how easy it is to complete a quality custom paper within the shortest time possible!