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Tuesday, May 31, 2011

Leonardos the Last Supper

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Leonardo’s, “The Last Supper”


Leonardo’s Last Supper is a priceless piece of art with much hidden meaning and obvious talents painted upon a wall. Under the study of Verrocchio as a painter and a sculptor, he was able to use his skills in creating a very detailed and a very naturalistic piece of work that would be remembered by thousands of people for hundreds of years. He was also able to create characters with amazing individuality. What attracts so many people to see this painting is its religious aspect, the realism in the figures, and the symbolism.


One reason that the painting, The Last Supper is so widely known is the religious aspect of it. It has almost become a sight of religious pilgrimage. The remembrance of the Last Supper could be due to the sacredness of the parting meal. It is quite obvious that the skill used in the creation of the Last Supper was magnificent. Although, the way Leonardo allows its viewers to depict the scene from a specific point in the Bible adds to the importance and significance of the painting in which no other artist could even compare. He does allow the viewer to recognize this scene by the gestures of both the Lord and the Apostles. The Lord sits ever so quietly while the Apostles rise in reaction to what the Lord had just announced. It is rather obvious that Leonardo chose the critical moment after the Lord had stated, ‘Verily I say unto you that one of you shall betray me, because of the emotions that evolve in this specific scene. This emotion that is seen on the apostles faces is another good reason why this painting is so renown and desired. He took much time to express every detail of each Apostle and the Lord. For example, the Lord is very relaxed with his arms resting on the table, which adds to the portrayal of his greatness. He also emphasized the Lords greatness by giving him a serious attitude (or at least a serious look on his face) and by presenting him as untouchable with the space between Himself and the Apostles. Although, the Apostles are painted in a more restless fashion, they are all facing different ways and seem to be jumping out of their seats. Another attraction to this work of art is the religious aspect that is apparent in all areas of the painting.


The incredible detail that Leonardo accomplished in “The Last Supper” was another large part of the popularity of this work of art. He was very cautious in his painting, from the placement of the figures to the movement they each possessed. Leonardo had to create actions and various postures that would be appropriate for each figure in order to keep them from looking as if they were brothers. For each of the twelve Apostles he had to not only resort to the historical information on their names and on their appearances but also by the portrayal of their qualities as they are known to us from the Gospels. Leonardo continued to distinguish each of the Apostles, as he felt necessary. Leonardo not only arranged the Apostles in four groups according to kinship and the personal links they shared, but each of the twelve Apostles exhibit a reaction appropriate to their character. Each disciple reacted in his own way, as men. The Lord Jesus was also given qualities that distinguished him from everyone else. Jesus’ hands are laid in a resting fashion on the table. His hands lie between the filled cup and the unbroken bread, the symbols of sacrifice, as if pointing in a silent gesture towards them. He seems to relay a message that His business has not yet been completed. Only the objects in front of Him remain in order, as does He remain calm, unlike the objects in front of the Apostles which are in disarray, as are the Apostles also in an northerly emotional state of confusion. Leonardo uses the description of the table to symbolize the state in which the Apostles and Jesus are. Leonardo really believed that the perspective of light was important because it ensured to make the Last Supper as realistic as possible.


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The third key as to why this piece is so successful is the symbolism used in the figures. The grouping of the apostles in three was done intentionally. He used four groups of three Apostles in each group in order to symbolize the Holy Trinity, which means three, and the four groups were used to symbolize the Gospels and the Cardinal Virtues. Also, Judas was put outside the circle of the innocent Apostles and only his shadowed profile can be found. He is the only one to be found sitting in the shadows and in solitude. This allows the viewer to see the guilt he had, for he knew he was the one who would betray the Lord Jesus. He is also frozen in shock, and he is an outcast in the group. The significance of the portrayal of Judas is very important because in earlier pictures of the Last Supper, no one had ever been able to show this.


These three aspects of Leonardo’s “The Last Supper,” religious appeal, vigorous attention to detail, and deep symbolism all in affect add to the popularity of this ever-famous piece of art. While there are many more attractants to art than those stated above. These seem to be the three most prevalent in art history.





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Monday, May 30, 2011

Alienation in “The Dead” and “Metamorphosis”

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Alienation in “The Dead” and “Metamorphosis”





In both Joyces The Dead, and Kafkas Metamorphosis, the central character is suffering from a severe alienation about their self. Gabriel, in Joyces The Dead, believes he is the one true love in Grettas life. When this deception is shown Gabriel’s world becomes shattered. Also, in The Metamorphosis, Gregor Samka realizes that he is only a pain in society, and his whole life is changed in self-esteem. The importance of self knowledge becomes apparent in these two tales.


In The Dead, James Joyce, shows the life of a man loaded with self deception. Gabriel is secure in the knowledge that he is smarter than his companions, and that he is on a social level far apart from the people around him. Gabriel states He was undecided about the lines from Robert Browning for he feared that they would be above the heads of his hearers (Dead, 148). He ranks his superior knowledge and social precision above the rest of his family, treating them like a subclass of mortality that has been left untouched. His wife shows mockery at the fact that the majority of the people at the party do not even grasp the concept of galoshes, which is a necessity of life that has not been passed down to the less fortunate. Gabriels shame for his family is easily perceived. He speaks down to them, refuses to learn their common language, and prefers to escape away from their land as much as possible. When he is asked about this shame, he becomes very upset and even attacks back at his family. O, to tell you the truth, retorted Gabriel suddenly, Im sick of my own country, sick of it (The Dead, 154). All of the illusions came crashing down when Gabriel realized that even the lowest among his family had the one thing that he lacked, and that was true love. Gabriel then realized that although Gretta cares for him, he does not have the depth of feeling that she has for the young boy that has given his life for her, nor will he ever realize the emotion. As you can see the destruction of identity is when Joyce describes Gabriel here, His own identity was fading out into a grey impalpable world . . . (the Dead, 174).


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In Kafkas Metamorphosis, Gregors subconscious an conscious realization of identity are separated and then at that only joined through his actual transformation. When the story begins, Gregor is transformed into a large, roach like creature, which is a representation of his place in society. A common laborer, in which he toils away at his daily routine, Gregor is nothing more than an insect to the powers that are in society. Even his family has no respect for him and forces him to provide, rather than sharing that duty. Throughout the story, as Gregors awareness of his position proceeds, he loses more and more of his human attributes. The climax of his transformation occurs when he looses the majority of his human like qualities. He crawls across the walls with recklessness and only cares about his own feelings. This is all destroyed when he comes to the realization that his family is going to remove his last link to humanity, and that is his picture. There is the first and last time he is addressed as a human after he has changed in physical appearance. This final incident forces Gregors conscious mind to associate with his subconscious mind and he begins to understand his new place in society, which is closely joined with his former place.


Both Kafka and Joyce examine the illusions that pass our subjective realities, Joyce testing the extent of love and Kafka digging deep into the loyalties of family and place of the worker. Joyce builds up to a high understanding once his character has discovered his illusions, while Kafka starts off with his character understanding his illusions subconsciously and works towards a placing both the conscious and subconscious mind. Kafka also takes a drastically more difficult route, that is transforming his character from humanity to the appearance of an insect. This transformation may not even be physical, just the disturbed ramblings of an insane mind. As Gregor became more distraught with his lack of advancement and resentment of his family, his outward appearance had become cold and hostile and less than human, while not being quite as impossible as a transformation into an insect. Joyce, on the other hand, battles a more common subject, which is love. He takes a typical situation with two typical lovers, and twists the ending from what is expected to show the barriers that exist between the understandings of men and women. So as you can see in both of the stories Joyce and Kafka both demonstrate a sense of alienation.








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Sunday, May 29, 2011

Prejudice in To Kill a Mockingbird

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Prejudice stems from many things. It can come from any person at any time. Sometimes it is a part of a person when they are born. A whole town, state, or country could show prejudice towards others. Prejudice in many cases ends in violence. Hitler showed an extreme example when he killed all of the Jews. He thought that they were all inferior and the Germans were the superior race. Hitler did not think all of his decisions all the way through. Prejudice is caused by the lack of knowledge of others.


To Kill a Mockingbird is believed to be a true account of what life was like in the state of Alabama in the 10s because Lee grew up around that time in a small town called Monroeville, the town Maycomb is believed to be based upon. With this, Lee can give more impact to the book’s events as if they actually happened which they did in the case of the Scottsboro trial.


Most of the Maycomb people are presented as prejudiced in the novel through their behaviour and speech towards the Negroes, as Aunt Alexandra shows in her early treatment of Calpurnia.


To Kill a Mockingbird investigates different types of prejudice throughout the novel. One form of prejudice is the hatred of the blacks in the white community in which violence breaks out as the form of a lynch mob at the jail. The lynch mob threatened to take the law into their own hands by killing Tom Robinson before the trial took place. The mob felt powerful and gained courage in a group but nevertheless singularly they were men. This was pointed out when Scout said, “Hey Mr Cunningham” which singled him out from the group. Scout enquires about his son Walter, touching Mr Cunningham’s human nature. He had been caught in this act by an innocent child and here she was knowing nothing and asking about his son and his giving advice on his affairs as a friend. By this Scout disarms Mr Cunningham and turns the mob away without any violence by appealing to their hearts.


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All the types of prejudice are subtlety connected with the Tom Robinson case. At Tom’s trial Scout meets Mr Dolphus Raymond for the first time but judges him from the rumours around Maycomb; without considering that they may be false and not to judge on appearances. Scout can observe the prejudice the town have against this man, he has violated their code of society by living with a black woman. To give a reason for his choice of lifestyle Mr Raymond pretends that he is a drunkard to escape the worst of the town’s scorn. This is in some ways a cowardly act on his part but makes the townsfolk more content with his life because they have a reason for his irrational behaviour. Scout learns that folk need a reason for another person’s actions, which seem wrong in their minds. Once folk can latch onto a reason for certain behaviour they are happier and more likely to let that person be.


Maycomb society considers itself to be right and just in its actions and rules. In the ladies missionary teas they gather together to discuss the town and how to improve the world by converting everyone to Christianity and abhorring these people’s own traditions and beliefs. The ladies believe that an African tribe that treats all the men and women as mothers and fathers to all the children is wrong and immoral to be one large family, helping each other. Harper Lee includes this in the book as an example of what harm these ladies are doing to other communities with better relations than their own.


Scout learns at first hand what the people of the town think of her father, Atticus. Mrs Merriweather insults Atticus in his own home in from of his sister, neighbour and daughter by referring to him as one of the “misguided people”. By insulting Atticus in the presence of his family Mrs Merriweather shows the company how two faced she really is, to be sitting in his home eating his food and then to insult him. Miss Maudie prevents more prejudice at the table as she comments that “his food doesn’t stick going down does it?”.


There is clear segregation between the races from the very beginning of the novel with Scout’s story of the Finch family. Scout said the Finches’ used slaves before the civil war on their plantation, which shows the early social standing of the blacks in Southern America to be slaves. Over one hundred and fifty years had passed since the civil war but the blacks were treated hardly better than slaves, performing menial tasks and holding menial jobs such as servants or farm hands. Everything is different for the black people of Maycomb. They live in the part of the town furthest away from the white citizens and the most unpleasant with its site being located by the rubbish dump as if they too were worthless. In ordinary town life the blacks have their own buildings for worship and a separate section to sit in the courthouse. The whites take no care of the sacred place they are in during the week where they gamble in the black community church. Tom Robinson ran away when he saw Bob Ewell because he knew just by having black skin he would be accused of something and was scared. When Scout asks if she may visit Calpurnia, her Aunt rules it out with out an explanation but by saying ‘You may not�. This implies that Aunt Alexandra is prejudice towards Calpurnia and that her shortness and the tone that she projects to the reader suggests this.


Prejudice is everywhere and it cannot be escaped, wherever you go there will be some form of it however mild it may be. Boo Radley was a victim of prejudice himself but could not stand to live in a world with all the prejudiced people out there and out of choice chose to stay locked up in his house for many years, only coming out at night.


Few could escape some sort of prejudice in the 10’s and the book shows this by showing prejudices even towards Atticus. His children are teased at school and the ladies of Maycomb gossip about him behind his back. In writing this book, the author investigates not only the types of prejudice but also the causes and the consequences of it.


Harper Lee illustrates in the novel a human’s need for a scapegoat to blame his or her own actions on. Tom Robinson was accused of raping Mayella Ewell after Mayella had broken the social code by kissing a black man. Mayella was not brave enough or wealthy enough to take the consequences of her actions as Mr Raymond did, instead she tried to dispose of the evidence. This illustrated in Atticus’ speech in the courtroom. “She did something every child has done � she tried to put the evidence of her offence away from her” Atticus says to the courtroom. He says this implying that Mayella wouldn’t except what she did and turned her guilt around on to Tom. Making out that it was Tom’s fault not her own, she had to pass on her guilt.


One other reason for prejudice is the fear and insecurity of crossing the barrier of tradition in to the unknown. It is easy to follow the crowd like with the lynch mob to stand up for what you believe in takes more courage.


The book tries to deal with how to combat prejudice It shows how an individual’s actions like Atticus and Miss Maudie can make more of a difference and through this Scout learns how to cope with it herself. The book is an education in prejudice; Scout and Jem start with not recognising prejudice at the beginning of the book and then learning about prejudiced people in community that they live in. They then learn how to deal with and occasionally combat it, for example, when Miss Maudie and Scout manage to deflect criticism away from Atticus and pay Mrs Merriweather back at the missionary tea.


The book also teaches the reader empathy by showing how Scout and Jem are taught it. Atticus through out the book teaches it to his children and says “you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them” this is what Atticus imply to his children, it is a good moral to live by. The book also educates the reader as well as showing the children being educated. The reader has to stop and rethink back to the beginning of the book when Jems arm broke to understand the connections of how in community of Maycomb could be so narrow minded and how someone could attack another’s children. The reader also reconsiders why Boo Radley never wanted to come out, giving you a different perspective towards the book and the inhabitants of Maycomb.


By writing the book, the author raises awareness of the prejudice that is in Southern America.


By the end of the novel Scout has grown up immensely. She can now understand why some people would rather not live in the world. Scout has seen the hypocrisy of peoples’ lives with her schoolteacher despising Hitler and yet hating the Negroes on her doorstep. Scout does not know why some people are prejudiced towards other people and why it seems they must always be like that. Even some of that society had rubbed off on Scout in the courtroom; such was the extent of their prejudice it reached a young child. It took her to stand on the Radley’s front porch to think clearly at last and to finally “climb into his skin and walk around in it”. From her experiences Scout has learnt that prejudice comes in many forms and the reader has accompanied Scout on that journey.





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The miller's tale

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Unit Assignment 4


1. Beginning with a consideration of lines 680 to the end of the tale, ‘He cogheth first, and knokketh therwithal/Upon the windowe, right as he dide er’, explore the ways in which Chaucer uses language to create a comic effect and consider how effectively the Tale is drawn to its conclusion. In your answer you will need to make detailed reference to the form, style and semantic, phonological and lexical features of language which help to shape the meaning of the text.


. How effectively do you feel Chaucer maintains the reader’s interest through his particular narrative style?


In your answer you should make detailed reference to the form, style and use of semantic, grammatical and phonological features.


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The Miller’s Tale


By Geoffrey Chaucer


The Miller’s Tale is a Tale of adultery and humour. Written by Geoffrey Chaucer around 10 it is a small part of a much larger collection of tales called The Canterbury Tales.


When looking at the form and style of The Miller’s Tale we can see that Chaucer is using iambic pentameter- that is the ten-syllable line. This was the form normally used in Chaucer’s time.


Chaucer also chooses to write in rhyming couplets which creates a kind of sing-song rhythm to the piece, giving it a musical quality when read out loud ‘My love-longing, for yet I shall not misse, That at the leste way U shall hir kisse.


The tale beings with The General Prologue, the Knight has just finished his tale and the Monk is next in line due to social preference to go next but a very drunken Miller interrupts and starts to tell his tale. He apologises and explains not to blame him for the foulness of the tale instead blames the ale he is drinking. ‘And therefore if that I misspeke or saye, Wite it the ale of Southwerk. Here the Miller is showing the first signs of humour by making a joke about his daytime drunkenness.


The Miller begins to tell his tale of an old, gullible carpenter called John who married a young girl called Alisoun who was only eighteen years of age. The carpenter is a very foolish old man and is scared of Alisoun betraying him so he keeps her trapped in a loveless marriage. Humour is present here because we can see the carpenter’s fault that if he keeps his wife trapped she will betray him.


A student called Nicholas takes up lodgings in one of the carpenter’s spare rooms, he takes a liking to Alisoun and begins to try and woo her with his intelligence and knowledge of astrology. A young parish clerk called Absolon also takes a liking to Alisoun and makes his affection known to her. Alisoun decides to fall for Nicholas and they plan to have a secret affair.


Nicholas pretends to John that a flood is coming and that he must attach three tubs to the roof in order for them all to be saved. Here Nicholas is making a fool of the carpenter and he is falling for it, Nicholas shows his ruthless side and we tend to think that maybe Nicholas has experience in this situation before and he is aware of secret love affairs and deception. The carpenter rushes and assembles the tubs and while the carpenter is asleep in his tub Alisoun and Nicholas spend the night together.


Throughout the Tale, Chaucer uses many styles, techniques and phonological features to enhance the humour and sexuality of the Tale. The Miller’s Tale is a poem that is full of action and its fast narrative pace reflects this. Chaucer does this by using short and snappy sentences ‘hir body gent’. In the description of Alisoun we will see that Chaucer uses animal imagery. We are told, ‘As any wesel hir body gent and small. Its ironic that Chaucer has got away with liking her to a animal as today it would be see as an insult.


Line 680 to the end of the tale really brings the tale to a close and contains the punch line to an on going joke. The end of the poem also shows how the poor old carpenter is made a mockery of as his neighbours laugh at his misfortune. Absolon goes to visit Alisoun to declare his love for her and calls at her window asking her for a kiss ‘This wol I yiven thee, if thou me kisse’. Naughty Alisoun agrees to the kiss as long as he agrees to leave her alone, she sticks her backside out of the window and Absolon kisses it. Feeling very angry and humiliated Absolon swears to seek revenge and goes to the Blacksmith and borrows a red-hot poker. Here Absolon questions his faith and swears himself to Devil. Absolon goes back to the window and asks for another kiss this time Nicholas sticks his backside out of the window and farts in Absolon’s face nearly blinding him ‘This Nicholas anon let flee fart’. Here Chaucer uses comic effect to add yet more humour to the poem, he does this by describing Nicholas’s outrageous behaviour with vivid description’s of the fart which he likens it to a thunder clap ‘As greet as it has been a thunder-dent’. Absolon angry as ever, sticks the red-hot poker in Nicholas backside which makes him scream and wake up the carpenter, who panics and thinks the flood has come so he cuts himself down from the roof and crashes to the ground breaking his arm, Chaucer here uses the noise of the crash of the tub to signalise the end of the poem but also the end of the joke and the joke is on him. All of his neighbours gather round and have a good laugh at his expense.





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Saturday, May 28, 2011

Montreal

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MONTREAL


MONTREAL IS A GREAT CITY, INCOMPARABLE TO OTHERS.


THERE IS SO MUCH TO SAY IN SO LITTLE TIME.


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THE FIRST THING THAT COMES TO MY MIND IS THE EXPLICITE


ARCHETECTURE. THE OLD BUILDINGS ARE AS REMARKEBLE AS


THE NEWLY DESIGNED ONES.


OUR BUILDINGS ARENT ONLY MAGNIFICENTE BUT MANY ARE


MEANINGFUL. LIKE BY INSTANCE , OUR CHURCHES.


WE HAVE TWO GREAT ONES, ST-JOSEPHS AND NOTRE-DAMES.


MONTREAL IS A MULTY CULTURAL CITY. WE HAVE THE CHANCE


TO EAT MANY DIFFERENT PLATES; FROM ITALIEN, GREEK AND


ARABIC TO CHINEESE, JAPONEESE AND TAI, WITHOUT


FORGETTING INDIAN, AFRICAN AND MANY OTHERS.


WE DONT ONLY HAVE THE ADVANTAGE IN RESTAURANTS BUT


ALSO IN DISTRICTS. YOU CAN FELL LIKE BEING IN CHINA


WITHOUT EVEN LIVING THE CITY. WE HAVE A GREAT


CHINA TOWN IN MONTREAL AND MANY MORE CULTURAL


DISTRICTS.


THIS CITY DOESNT ONLY HAVE 4 GREAT SEASONS BUT MANY


ACTIVITIES TO GO WITH IT. IN WINTER, WE CAN GO


SKATING ON INSIDE OR OUTSIDE ICE RINGS. WE CAN ALSO GO


SKIING ON MOUNTAINS UP NORTH AND SPEND A NIGNT OR A


WEEKEND IN A CHALET UP THERE OR JUST GO AND WATCH A


HOCKEY GAME IN THE BELL CENTER. IN SPRING, SUGAR CABANS


ARE A GOOD WAY TO SPEND THE DAY WITH FRIENDS OR FAMILY.





IN SUMMER TIME, THERE IS SO MANY THINGS TO DO THAT I


CAINT NAME THEM, BUT HERE ARE SOME. SPENDING A DAY IN


OUR AMUSEMENT PARK, IN SUPER AQUA CLUB (WERE THERES


WATER SLIDES),ON A CRUSE. THERE IS SO MANY FESTIVALS


DOWNTOWN, YOU CAN SPEND THE DAY THERE OR JUST TAKE A


WALK ON THE OLD PORT. ITS IMPOSSIBLE RUN OUT OF THINGS


TO DO. FINALY IN THE FALL, BACK TO SCHOOL, NOTHING MUCH


EXCITING. I GUESS THAT THE BEST THING TO DO IS TO SIT


DOWN ON A PARK BANCH OR TO HAVE A PIC-NIC, LOOKING AT


BEAUTIFUL COLORED TREES.


EVEN THOUGH I HAVENT MANCHEN EVERYTHING ABOUT


MONTREAL BUT I CAINT END THIS WITHOUT SAYING THAT OUR


NIGHTLIFE IS CRAZY. PEOPLE HERE KNOW HOW TO PARTY AND


THAT EXPLAINS THE BIG AMOUNT OF CLUBS WE HAVE.


Please note that this sample paper on Montreal is for your review only. In order to eliminate any of the plagiarism issues, it is highly recommended that you do not use it for you own writing purposes. In case you experience difficulties with writing a well structured and accurately composed paper on Montreal, we are here to assist you. Your persuasive essay on Montreal will be written from scratch, so you do not have to worry about its originality.

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Friday, May 27, 2011

Police Power

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Police Power


• The police must respect individual’s civil rights.


• People are entitled to be allowed to move freely and to have their person and their property respected. However, there must be sufficient powers for the police to investigate crime.


• Parliament gave them special powers which can be used in certain circumstances.


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• Includes right to stop and search them, to arrest and interview people when necessary and to take fingerprints and samples (blood) for scientific analysis.


• Law on police powers � Police and Criminal Evidence (PACE) Act 184.


• Five codes


1. Code A � Powers to stop and search.


. Code B � Powers to search premises and seize property.


. Code C � Detention, treatment and questioning of suspects.


4. Code D � Rules for identification procedures.


5. Code E � Tape-recording of interviews with suspects.


Serious arrestable offences


Automatically considered as ‘serious arrrestable offences’ � Section 116 PACE � treason, murder, manslaughter, rape, other serious sexual offences, hijacking, kidnapping, hostagetaking, drug trafficking, some firearms offences and causing explosion likely to endanger life and property, offences lead to serious consequences such as serious harm to the state or public order, death, serious injury, substantial financial gain or serious financial loss.


Power of arrest


Without a warrant


Section 4 PACE


1. Power of arrest � police and private.


. Arrestable offence


• Offence � sentence is fixed by law.


• Offence � max sentence given to an adult is at least five years’ imprisonment. Not that max sentence will be given, merely that the max sentence is five years or more.


• Offence which Parliament has specifically made an arrestable offence. Max sentence is six months’ imprisonment.


. Arrestable by police and private citizens


• Who is in the act of committing an arrestable offence.


• Who he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be committing an arrestable offence.


• Who has committed.


• Where an arrestable offence has been committed, anyone whom he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be guilty (even if he didn’t do it).


4. Arrestable by police only


• Who is about to commit.


• Whom he has reasonable grounds for suspecting to be about to commit.


• Reasonable grounds for suspecting that an arrestable offence has been committed (even if no offence has been committed).


• Reasonable grounds for suspecting the person arrested.


5. No matter how suspicious the suspect is, private citizens cannot lawfully carry out an arrest.


6. R V Self (1)


Off-duty policeman was suspected of theft by a store detective when the officer was seen to pick up a bar of chocolate in the shop and leave without paying. The store detective helped by another person arrested the police officer by catching hold of him. The officer struggled to get free, kicking the two. He was charged with theft and assault with intent to resist arrest. At the trial, he was acquitted of the theft but convicted of the assaults. Court of Appeal � he held that the offence of theft had not been proved, no arrestable offence and so the arrest was not lawful. In view of this he could not be guilty of assault with intent to resist arrest since a person is entitled to resist and unlawful attempt to arrest them.


Section 5 PACE


1. Power of arrest � police only.


. Any offence


• Suspect’s name and address cannot be discovered.


• Reasonable grounds for believing that the name and address given by the suspect are false.


. Necessary to prevent suspects who committed non-arrestable offences that refuse to co-operate with police run off.


4. Also implied to offence


• Physical injury to himself and others.


• Suffering physical injury (suicide attempts).


• Causing loss of or damage to property.


• Committing an offence against public decency.


• Causing an unlawful obstruction of the highway.


• Children � child abuse.


• Other vulnerable person.


1. Section 46A PACE - Police to arrest without a warrant anyone who having been release on police bail, fails to attend at the attend at the police station at the set time.


. The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 14 � Police t arrest variety of new offences including collective and aggravated trespass, in connection with offences committed in preparing for or attending a ‘rave’, or intentional harassment.


. Common Law � Arrest when there has been, or is likely to be a breach of peace.


1. McConnell v Chief Constable of the Greater Manchester Police (10)


Manager of carpet store had asked McConnell to leave but he refused. A police officer had then taken McConnell outside but McConnell attempted to reenter, so he was arrested for conduct whereby a breach of peace might be occasioned. McConnell sued the police for false imprisonment arguing that the arrest was unlawful as a breach of the peace could not occur on private premises. Court of Appeal held that the arrest was lawful.


. Bibby v Chief Constable of Essex Police (000)


Court of Appeal summarized the conditions for common law power


ɨ Sufficiently obvious, real threat to the peace.


ɨ Threat must come from the person to be arrested.


ɨ Conduct must clearly interfere with the rights of others and its natural consequences must be ‘not wholly unreasonable’ violence from a third party


ɨ Conduct must be unreasonable.


Arrest with a warrant


1. The person is not co-operative / difficult to arrest.


. Warrant � issued by magistrate by virtue of section 1 of Magistrates’ Court Act 180.


. Requires written information, supported by evidence on oath showing that a person has committed or suspected of committing.


4. Granted if the offence involved is a punishable by imprisonment. Not granted if it is punishable by fine.


Manner of arrest


1. Tell the person arrested that they are under arrest and the reason.


. ``1No set form of words.


. May use reasonable force.


4. Criminal Justice Act 167 s. covers other arrests.


The right to search an arrested person


1. Search that person for anything which might be used to help an escape / evidence relating to the offence.


. Extent


• Public Requires suspect to remove outer coat, jacket and gloves only.


• Private Intimate / strip search allowed.


Powers of detention


1. Most offences


Arrest  Detained 4 hours.


. Serious arrestable offences


Arrest  Detained 6 hours  Max 6 hours (Apply for permission from Magistrates’ Court).


. At the initial period, detainee should be either charged or released.


4. When arrested, detainee permitted to legal representation. Can oppose application for extension of detention � with valid grounds.


5. Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act 18


6. Arrest  Detained 48 hours  5 days (Permission from Home Secretary).


7. Whilst in detention Custody officer will have to review 6 hours after the detention � intervals hours � to ensure that there are grounds for continuing the detention � or order an immediate release � must record all events that occur, visits to cell, interviews.


Rights of a detained person.


Told their rights by the custody officer.


1. The right to have someone informed of the arrest


• Section 56 PACE


• The arrested person can nominate any friend, relative or any other person who they think is likely to be interested in their welfare.


• Person nominated by detainee must be told of the arrest and where there person is being held.


• Immediately but in serious arrestable offence cases, senior police officer may authorize that there be a delay up to 6 hours � reasonable grounds for believing that telling the named person will lead to interference; harm to evidence or other person,.


• Code C PACE � allowed to speak on the telephone ‘for reasonable time to one person’.


• Under 18, police must contact a person ‘responsible for his welfare’ and inform the arrest.


. The right to legal advice.


• Section 58 PACE


• Detainee may either contact their own solicitor or they can use the system of duty solicitors which is provided free for anyone under arrest.


• When authorizing the detention, custody officer must get suspect to sign the custody records and said that whether he / she wishes to have legal advice.


• Posters ‘prominently displayed’ advertising the right to free legal advice.


• Also told orally by custody officer.


• Possible for senior police officer to authorize a delay to a suspect’s right to see a solicitor � serious arrestable offence to 6 hours � reasonable grounds for believing that giving access to a solicitor will lead to interference, harm to evidence and others.


• Rare occasions that such delay was justified, must based on specific aspects of the case, not a general assumption that access to solicitor might lead to the alerting of accomplices.


• R v Samuel (188) � Man, 4 � mother had been informed that son was under arrest some hours before he was refused access to a solicitor. Court of Appeal felt that if anyone was likely to be alerted then it would already have happened, that there was no reason to deny Samuel his ‘fundamental freedom’ of consulting a solicitor. His final interview had taken place after his solicitor had been refused access, the evidence was inadmissible in court. Samuel was not convicted with robbery.


. Allowed to consult the code of practice.





Powers to stop and search


1. Sections 1 to 7 PACE � vehicles and people.


. Public place � not only means in the street, but also extends to areas such as pubs, car parks and even private gardens, if the police officers has good reasons for believing that suspect does not live at that address.


. Must have reasonable grounds for suspecting that the person is in possession of (or the vehicle contains) stolen goods or prohibited articles.


4. Prohibited articles � offensive weapons and articles for use in connection with burglary or theft.


5. Give his name and station and the reason for the search.


6. Osman v DPP (1) � Officers did not give their names and station. QBD Court held the search of Mr Osman unlawful. He could not be guilty of assaulting the police in the execution of their duty. Police must make a written report immediately.


7. Home Office statistics show the increasing use of the power to stop and search.


8. Code A � Contains details and guidance on when these powers should be used. Stresses that police must not act just because of a person’s characteristics (Paragraph 1.7).


Other powers to stop and search.


Misuse of Drugs Act 171 � Police search for controlled drugs.


Prevention of Terrorism (Temporary Provisions) Act 18 � To stop and search where there is reasonable suspicion of involvement in terrorism.


Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 14 � Additional power of the right to stop and search in anticipation of violence � only when authorized by a senior police officer who reasonably believes that serious violence may take place in any locality in his area. Once it has been authorized, a police officer acting under it does not have to have reasonable suspicion about the individual he stops.


Section 60(5) � A constable in the exercise of those powers, stop any person or vehicle and make any search he thinks fit whether or not he has any grounds for suspecting that the person or vehicle is carrying weapons or dangerous articles.


Infringement of civil liberties � Rights to stop and search without any reason to suspect the individual who is stopped. Such rights are at least, of limited duration as the senior police officer authorizing stop and search powers can only do so for a period of 4 hours.





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Thursday, May 26, 2011

Speechs and society

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Subjects were asked to remember a short poem, and afterwards asked to record it onto tape. The tape was subsequently judged by or judges. This procedure was carried out at lunchtime before sleep deprivation, and at lunchtime the following day.


Judgements were made on the number of intonation, errors, pauses and mis-pronunciations. The time taken to recite the poem was also recorded.


The bar chart above shows the median pronunciation errors. The median before sleep deprivation was 0.5, and was 1.5 after sleep deprivation. Using a Wilcoxon T test, T=7 and N=1. this means the result is significant at the 0.01 level, one tailed (less than 1 in 100 chance of the result being a fluke).


Listen to these two samples of sleep deprived subjects speaking.


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On the nights of Monday 16th, Tuesday 17th and Wednesday 18th March 18, three separate groups of student volunteers (aged 16 and 17 years) stayed at the college over night without sleeping. They did all the things healthy teenagers do when out for a good time. That is eat lots of food (thanks to our sponsors), watch videos, listen to music, play basketball in the gym, chat and even do some homework!


The lunchtime before they were sleep deprived they were tested to see how their brains normally performed. We were astounded, of course! The next lunchtime our sleepy people were led zombie-like into the testing room once again to perform different versions of the same tests. Click here to find out what our subjects thought about their experiences.


We expected everybody to do badly, after their sleepless night; How wrong we were. Most were better at maths and sorting things out. They were more likely to remember long telephone numbers on first hearing (now that could be handy, couldnt it?).


So our advice to you is to leave your maths homework until you are really tired. When you are wide awake in the day your brain probably has too many things to think about, which interferes with the mathematical process. If you relax your mind its easy to calculate sums, but if you are too alert, you could be over cautious, which probably interferes with what should be an almost automatic process (some people have been known to calculate what day of the week a particular date occurred instantaneously). Another reason could be that your short term memory expands (see our digit span test), which means you can carry all those digits from the units column to the tens column much more easily.





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remember the titans

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Remember the Titans


This movie is mainly based on acceptance. The diversity of this film gives a strong frame for a story line. At the start of the film two schools, one African and one white, are forced to combine to make one diverse school. The one main factor that leads to the acceptance of each other is the football team. The two teams first meet at a camp where they are forced to get along. First off we find that Coach Boone(the black coach) is the more harsher and stricter one(partially due to the fact that he was the head coach), where as coach Yoast was a more lenient and understanding coach. WE see much of Coach Boone’s strictness when he mixes up the black and white kids. This was his strategy to get the kids to become one team instead of two teams playing together. At the end of the camp, most of the team were looking past colors. When the team went back to town the harsh reality kicked in that they were the only ones accepting each other. Through out the movie, the titans beat every team they played. This showed how well they got along


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Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Orientalism

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ORIENTALISM


In Edward Said’s thesis entitled, Orientalism he examines the history of “Orientalism”. “It is a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient’s special place in European Western experience”. That is, Europe’s vast and rich history with their geographical neighbours and how this affected one another’s rise. Europe’s history with the Orient goes back to the times of colonies. While Said notes that America’s new history is more recently defined with Asiatic wars in Japan and Korea. Orientalism is vaster in its definition. Said describes three meanings of Orientalism. There is a scholarly approach to the study. “Anyone who teaches, writes about, or researches the Orient…is an Orientalist.” (Said, 0). The term is less favoured today because it denotes a certain sense of superiority over the Orient. Mainly, however “Orientalism is a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between the Orient and the Occident.”(1). This distinction allowed writers to use it as a foreground for various writing themes. The last meaning brings to the thesis its discourse, “…a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority with the Orient.” (1). The belief that Europe was able to manage and produce the Orient during the post-Enlightenment period.


During early nineteenth century the “Orient” mainly referred to India and the bible lands and from the beginning of the nineteenth century until the beginning of World War II France and Britain dominated the Orient and thus, Orientalism. After World War II it became America’s land and mentality. It is from the Occident (Britain, France and America) there is a strong form of texts called Orientalist.


It is important to note that the Orient and Occident are man-made and have their own true traditions and existence. The two entities need and support one another. There could not be Orientalism without each other and each entity would not be the same without their support. Three qualifications that support this according to Said are There are actually cultures who live in the Orient that know the reality far greater than those living and writing in the West, “the regular constellation of ideas as the pre-eminent thing about the Orient, and not to its mere being.” (). The second qualification is the understanding of configurations of power, Said gives an example of Flaubert and his encounter with an Egyptian courtesan. He describes a “typical Oriental” to be subservient and dutiful. This supports an Orientalism discourse of the pattern of strength and power between East and West. Lastly, “Orientalism is not an airy European fantasy…but a created body of theory and practice in which, for many generations, there has been a considerable material investment.” (4). The effort made by examining the Orient has allowed Westerners to understand the Orient.


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Gramsci has made two distinctions between civil and political society. Culture lies within the civil society and the dominating form is called, hegemony. It is “an indispensable concept for any understanding of cultural life in the industrial West” (4). It is in this work that reiterates the point that Europe is superior to the Orient.


Said details the difference of pure and political thought. Said points out his own area of study, which is the ‘humanist’ or humanities. He stresses that humanities don’t involve anything political. Said studies Orientalism “as a dynamic exchange between individual authors and the large political concerns shaped by the three great empires- in whose intellectual and imaginative territory the writing was produced.” (0). Said recognizes that the study of Orientalism must have a formidable background in politics as he raises several questions, such as, “ What other sorts of intellectual, aesthetic, scholarly, and cultural energies went into the making of an imperialist tradition like the Orientalist one?” (0). Said asks the methodological question in which he speaks of a “strategic location” and “formation.” The strategic location is a way of describing the author’s position in and text and the strategic formation is the way we analyze a text. Said understands the deep importance of representing the Orient. They must, in some way locate themselves in the Orient. Still, he acknowledges that every Orientalist assumes some precedent. Thus, the use of intertextuality in time will give strength and authority to the ideas used. It worries him because the earliest representations of the Orient were highly artificial. There is an obvious strength in language in text and it will depend on the West to represent the Orient.


There is an unconscious positivity called ‘latent Orientalism’ and there are the various stated views about Oriental society called ‘manifest Orientalism’. Nineteenth century writers Said examined agreed that the Orient was a land in need of Western support. They were in need of civilization, christianisation and education. This was the situation from the 1870’s to the early nineteenth century. Said gives many examples of Orientalism discourse in books and theses written at the time that support the claim of racial inequality. There were classic Oriental stereotypes made; Oriental males were viewed with contempt and fear, while the women expressed unlimited sensuality. “Moreover the male conception of the world, in its effect upon the practicing Orientalist, tends to be static…the very possibility of development, transformation, human movement…is denied to the Orient and the Oriental.” (5).





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Saturday, May 21, 2011

The Emergence of Expressionism in the 20th Century

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“The artist expresses only what he has within himself, not what he sees with his eyes.” Alexej von Jawlensky.


Expressionism is a movement in the art world that spread quickly due to its broad appeal. Expressionist artwork concerns itself more on the emotions of the artist than the subject being portrayed. Artists were attracted to this movement because it allowed for new concepts of colour application and distortion. To look at this movement is to look through a panoramic view, and encompass the many different movements, artists, locations, and influences that were involved in establishing expressionism. The philosophy of tying emotion to art was the factor that led to the beginning of the style. Turmoil in society was the focus of the first artists, and eventually all emotions were associated with expressionism. The history of expressionism began in 105, with the forerunners Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Edvard Munch. It followed the movement of impressionism, although very different in style. Impressionism was a style that involved capturing the moment. It focused on use of colour to depict light, instead of expressionism depicting emotion. The Fauves were the first group of painters to acquire the name ‘expressionist’; they led the movement that was to occur. The symbolism of colour in relation to emotion emerged, and to study the expressionist movement colour must be a main focus. Artists of all mediums were interested in capturing emotion. Sculptors, writers, and music composers were headed in the direction of expression. In Germany the art style had special appeal to the people because of the angst they were suffering in the years before World War I. The movement of expressionism eventually subdued in, but it opened a door for Dadaism, Surrealism and Fantasy art. Artists began to steer away from incorporating emotion, and concentrated purely on distortion in the name of art. The trend of expressionism continues to be considered a movement toward individualism and is studied because of the importance of the precursors of expressionism and the after-effects that were felt in the world due to expressionism.


Expressionism is a trend of applying the artist’s emotions toward the subject or the emotions that the artist is feeling at the time they produce a work. It is not only a style, but is also a philosophy that erupted around 105 through 118 and spread throughout the art world . The trend of rationality in art was the dominant art style in time up to the 1th century when artists realized that they could express their personal emotions to the audience through their art works. They also believed that art and society are interwoven. In their art works they expressed social injustices, rejected materialistic prosperity, and break away from the capitalistic society. This was the rebellion from optical representation to personal interpretation. Artists broke away from the common portrait style paintings and instead took a new approach to art, which consisted of capturing the emotions felt about the subject instead of the subject itself.


Expressionism emerged in Germany when artists began to shift focus from the reality of touch and sight to an individual perception. Early artists who experimented with violent colour movement and exaggerated lines to suggest emotional expressionism include Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Edvard Munch.


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Impressionism began when the trio of Renoir, Claude Monet and Alfred Sisley showcased their art of the outdoors and the effect of sunlight on subject matter. Critics scorned the artwork and the artists were called ‘impressionists’ because the work showed a general impression of the subject. The paintings can be distinguished because it seems as if the artists took only a few minutes to complete the artwork. The invention of the camera allowed painters to leave the indoor studios and begin to in paint the outdoors ; depicting crowds, buildings, and other scenes that take place outdoors. Subject matter was broader than ever before in art history. Often the artists would paint the same subject many times over to include the different effect that light has on the painting. Monet painted the west fa├žade of Rouen Cathedral twenty-six times, concentrating on light effect.








French poet De Vigny stated that one should love the things one will never see again . The impressionists found the goal to capture the fleeing moment, and contain the essence of a snapshot. The experimentation of colour, line, and movement by the impressionists led to the birth of expressionism where the new techniques were used to not only portray light and dark, but to portray emotion.


Expressionist artists incorporate colourful interpretations, movement, distortion, and interest in nature when portraying their subject matter, where as the classical trend follows rules about proportion, arrangement, and realistic depictions of light distribution.


THE HAYSTACK


The roots of experimentation with art techniques began with impressionism, but philosophy emerged with expressionism.


The Fauves began exhibiting their artwork in 105 in Paris. Critics who were astonished by the use of vibrant colours, shape distortion, and bold brush strokes rejected the artwork. The term Fauvism comes from the French word, “Fauves” which means wild beast, which referred to the work of the artists because to the French the new style of art was radical. The Fauves challenged the modern use of art, and slanted toward a style that was unrealistic, free, and wild. Henri Matisse was in the forefront of the Fauves movement with his use of exaggerated colours, used to evoke emotion, and experimenting use of collages and simplified paintings. His unique style of interweaving colour and emotional symbolism has remained one of the classifying elements of the expressionist movement.


Each expressionist artist correlated colours with emotion differently, but the symbol each colour holds does not change. Van Gogh and Gauguin were motivated by the idea that colours and emotions interrelate, and aimed to capture the philosophy in their artwork. German artist Paula Modersohn-Becker remarked after viewing Van Gogh’s work, “I should like to endow colour with fullness, excitement.” The colour yellow was used to convey a symbol of relaxation, hopefulness, and a offer a contrast to the colours grey and violet which symbolize darkness and shadow. Van Gogh was used yellow avidly in his artwork. Association of emotion to colour and artistic form was an indicator that a modern era was emerging. The new perspective symbolized the shift that was occurring across the world. The artists pushed for a break from conformed thought, and established a focus on emotion and the individual. Red was seen as sexual; blue was a symbol of nothingness and coolness. Artists kept the use of brown to a minimum in the expressionist period, as it was neutral and evoked no emotion. Franz Marc used red and blue to portray a kaleidoscope of colour and energy.


THE YELLOW COW


As a society as a whole is affected by a new philosophy, the society of artists were influenced by integration of emotion and distortion to their work. Sculptors distorted the human figure to produce emotional shock . Auguste Rodin added piece by piece his sculptures in the same way expressionist painters added strokes.


They furthered the movement away from rationalism. Writers were also absorbed by expressionism, tying the audiences’ emotions into work. Staging techniques, scene design and directing took new approaches. German music composer, Richard Wagner made carefully structured works in the name of expressionism. Emotion was the focus of the entire movement, understanding the emotion was another focus in expressionism.


German Expressionism flourished and continued to dominate the German world of art because the people felt that it was important to represent emotional feelings to their paintings. Sadness was conveyed and accepted in paintings with exaggerated movement and line structure and texture. Before the outbreak of World War I, painter Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, captured the feelings of tension and encompassed the theme of appearance verses reality in his paintings. During the war, Kathe Kollwitz, painted to protest against the suffering of the poor and needy in wartime. She said, “the joyous side simply did not appeal to me.” Her painting Death and the Mother, generate a feeling of helplessness desperate fear.





DEATH AND THE MOTHER


Edvard Munch was a forerunner for the German movement; he painted through the eyes of a person suffering from extreme mourning. Familiar shapes were distorted, and unexpected colour was applied to the art. Through his painting, The Scream, Munch captured fear and terror by heightening the intensity of the scream.


THE SCREAM


A small group of artists in Germany were attracted to the violent colour and distortion of the Fauves movement of Van Gogh, Munch, and Gauguin. The Die Brucke, meaning ‘the bridge,’ used expressionist techniques to cry out against economic and social conditions during World War I and search for answers beyond secularism and convention. With woodcutting as a medium, simplification in depiction was established. Kirchner stated, “Uncomprehended for the most part, and totally distorted; for with us [the will] shaped the form and gave it meaning.” When the Die Brucke split up in 11 , it gave way to inspire Dadaism, Surrealism and Fantasy art.


The Dada movement occurred in the turmoil of World War I, they believed the world had lost meaning and purpose, and reflected this view in their art. The surrealists were the group who rejected control, composition and logic to the extreme. Dreams and the subconscious were the focus of the art. The shift from emotional ties in the early days of expressionism was beginning to lessen in the trends that followed. It spread from Switzerland to Germany and Paris. Dadaism led the way for surrealism to emerge. Salvador Dali created eerie artworks symbolizing an irrational dream world.


Art in Focus- pg6 THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY


The trends that followed expressionism, although slightly different in style, still contained the emotions of the artist, therefore still remaining on the lines of the movement.


With the contribution of artists from around the globe in the following time periods influenced by the works of the expressionists, and their new form of capturing the audience through a painting, artists experimented with surreal fantasy art, and Dadaism emerged. German painters involved with emotional art were able to express their anguish through their paintings, and used expressionism to their benefit. They experimented with new art style, while sculptors, painters and writers were experimenting all over the world. The use of colour defined the art movement, as painters focused more on heightened emotional awareness through the use of colour. The Fauves were the group to begin with the usage of violent colour variations in their work, and although they were criticised in their own beginning, critics around the world recognize the influence they had on the rest of the world. They broke away from the impressionist movement before them, and found their own niche. From 105, and the first exhibition of expressionist art, the movement has found not only a lasting place in the timeline of art history, but also found a place an influential art philosophy .














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The great gatsby

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Deandra Bell


Cyr


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Was Nick Reliable?


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In the novel The Great Gastby the character Nick Caraway, played the narrorator. In the novel Nick was a wonderful


narrorator because he interacts with all the main characters so the story comes out based on the main characters. The author of


the The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald came to his mother Mary and his father Edward Sept. 4 186 in St. Paul,


Minnesota. Fitzgerald had a younger sister by the name of Annanbel (Wukovits, 14). Fitzgeralds fathers death put him


through college. Scotts mother new his passion for schooling so she used his father inheritance to pay for him to start of college.


Scott attend Princeton University for years then he droped out because his grades stated to drop. While in school Fitzgerald


met Zelda Sair at a dance, Scott could not forget about her so after he got out of school the couple started to date. Fitzgeral


wanted to be a hero so he decided to join the army ( F. Scott Fitzgerald The Geat American Dreamer).After Scott discarded


from the army Scott and Zelda got engaged. June 11 Zelda called of the engagement off because Nick cold not support her


financially. Then after Scott wrote his first novel she decided to get married to him. The had a wonderful marriage at the


beginning, towards the end they started to fall apart. Scott died at the age forty-four and Zelda died at the age of forty-eight.


The setting of The Great Gatsby took place in the 10s where organized crime, prohibition, flappers and bootleggers


took there stand. Organized crime in the 0s played a role in The Great Gatsby, because Gatsbys friend Meyer Wolshiem


related him self to alot of organized crime. James Gatsby gave the impression to the readers that he distributed alchohol also


know as a bootlegger. The book had alot of scenes where the Law of Prohibiton did not stop the characters from drinking.


Young women in the 0s were known as flappers, most of the woman characters in the novel were looked upon as flappers.


The book portayed a well magnified scene of the Great 0s.





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Tuesday, May 17, 2011

the jungle

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The Jungle





Chapters 1-


In these first few chapters, I was surprised at a couple of things. One of these things was about how little focus was on Ona and Jurgis at their own wedding reception. They were only talked about very briefly and not again until the next chapters. I would think if you are going to talk about a wedding, you would probably talk about the people getting married;, not the violinist in the wedding band, like Sinclair talked about Tamoszius. What also surprised me was how awful Sinclair made Chicago look to these poor immigrants moving to America. You always hear how great America was and how it was a “land of opportunity” for all these immigrants years ago. Sinclair described in a flashback how Ona and Jurgis and some family members came to America from Lithuania and found it was quite depressing and dirty. The landscape was rundown and did not look too promising, but these people were still optimistic and grateful for everything they had. Even after Jurgis sees the hogs and cattle being slaughtered in the dirty factories, he is just grateful that these places employ so many people and hopes to be able to get a job there. Also their living conditions were quite bad. They lived in a four room apartment with about fifteen people. I figured when they saw how awful it was there, they would give up all hope and maybe even want to move to another country.


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These chapters are beginning to describe how difficult life was for the poor people, especially immigrants in the early twentieth century in America. It shows the troubles in things from trying to become situated in a new place and lifestyle to even just trying to get married with what little money and possessions you have. They also describe how even though these people were in a different country, they still tried to keep traditions of the old country, such as the acziavimos at the wedding reception. It was difficult to keep these traditions because the young people wanted to change to their new atmosphere and new country’s customs.


In chapters 4-, we learn how Jurgis surprisingly enjoys his work and is even shocked to see that his fellow workers do not feel the same as he does. Even though he realizes how gross his task of killing the animals is, he still loves the fact he is getting paid to do it. It is amazing that money means so much to Jurgis that he does not even want to join the union because he had to pay to get in. I did not think he would ever change his mind because he was so head-strong, especially when it came to money, but he did when Marija] lost he job and he realizes he is not protected either. Because he likes his money so much, I was surprised that he did not want Antanas to get a fob just because he would have to pay a certain amount of his pay. I figured he would want money anyway he could get it. Something else about these chapters is that they seem to be a little more boring to read, not the material in them but just how they are brought across. Instead of being told directly what the characters did, Sinclair chose to tell what they had done, even important things, like how Tamoszius and Marija get engaged. This especially should have been told in more detail because it is so interesting. I never even expected her to get married because she is so headstrong and set in her ways so it seemed strange that she would marry this little man who seemed to only love music. Another thing in these chapters was ;the death of Jurgis’ father, Dede Antanas. Until the day he died, he was still worried about working to “earn his keep” in the family. I am surprised that even when confronted with death, money was still on everyone’s mind. Jurgis does not even have time to mourn his father’s death because he was worried about paying for the hearse, because they could not even afford a real funeral. The reason he died was because of the poor conditions where he worked.


I found this part of the story to be a little bit humorous, even though I am sure this is not the effect Sinclair was trying to portray. The way Sinclair describes how you can tell where someone works in the factory by which disease or injuries they have, from rheumatism, to cut off of lost fingers from acid and knives. Another funny thing was the way Jurgis describes the government after being told about and influenced by those who pay him to vote a certain was. He almost compares the government to his meat packing factory with all of it’s corruption and describes it in this way “The officials who ruled it, and got all the graft, had to be elected first; and so there were two rival sets of grafters, known as political parties, and the one got the office, which bought the most votes.”(11) This is funny in that it shows how corrupt even the government was at that time.


These chapters are now getting into more details about how dirty and depressing the meat packing industry was. Every part of it, even Antanas mopping the chemicals on the floor, was sad. Sinclair is now showing his obvious theme of how awful this industry is by telling the sad story of Jurgis and his family.


Chapters 10-15 were quite troubling to me. It seems as if everything that could go wrong did. When Ona has her baby, she can not afford to stay away from work so she has to go back to work a week after the birth of Antanas, which leaves her with various illnesses she will never get over. Also, Jurgis is not making as much money as before because there are so many new workers in his factory. All the owners think about is making more money so they do not care about cutting the pay of their workers. The next thing is that Jurgis hurts his ankle, which puts him out of work for a few months. This was troubling because it seemed the family was finally, coming through but now without Jurgis, the others would have to work extra hard. Something surprising, though, is the way Jurgis acted after he got hurt. When Stanislovas, Ona’s young step-brother, got his fingers frozen permanently hurting them, Jurgis got mad and beat him every morning because he did not want to go to work. I never thought Jurgis would hurt anyone. He seemed too nice, especially around Ona and her family, to actually beat someone. When Jurgis gets better, he goes out looking for a job. His job at Brown’s is no longer his because the factory refuses liability. This shows how much things have changed since the early 100’s. Now, if you get hurt on the job, that have to take you back or pay you something or you can sue them. Back then, they did not treat workers as humans. All they were considered were something that helped to bring in money to the company. He finally got a job at the fertilizer plant, the lowest job possible. He was sick from the gross conditions and made all those he lived with sick, too. I think it was sick that he had to put himself and his family through this just to get paid as little as he did. If we had to do this today to not even get all of the essentials of life, I think I would kill myself. Something else that made me sick was the way Sinclair described Ona’s stepmother, Elzbieta’s job with the sausage machine. It was so disgusting how he described the different things in sausage. I doubt I will ever eat it again. Next in these chapters, I was disappointed that Jurgis took up drinking. I thought he would be stronger than that because he had Ona. She, however, put him “over the edge” when he finally found out about her and her boss Conner. Jurgis was basically beating information out of her about him, which again surprised me. I was not surprised, however, when he want to beat up Conner. He had always wanted to protect her and when he found out Conner had hurt her and threatened her with her and her family’s jobs, he obviously, would try to protect her from being hurt again.


These chapters again are showing the depressing life of these poor people who are forced to work in these disgusting packing houses. To have to live this type of life seems almost unbearable. Their jobs influence everything in their lives, almost making them a living hell. Sinclair is showing that their lives are this hard and depressing not because they are not hard workers, but because there is almost no way possible to succeed in their time and place. It would be a miracle even to be able to work at a job one even minutely likes or even get paid a half-way descent amount . Their life is just horrible in every way possible.


Chapters 16-1


In these chapters, what interested me most was Jurgis seemed to think the same way I do. His views of how society treats criminals is similar to mine. When he finds that in jail, he is fed and sheltered, he is almost angry at society because it is helping these criminals when people like him can’t even afford these luxuries. Also, I was surprised at how the judge sentenced him. He barely listened to his side of the story, and when he listened to Conner, who is part of the “system”, he granted him everything he wanted. Something else was how easily Jurgis took in all the information that Duane, a fellow prisoner, was telling him about how corrupt society actually was. He absorbed so easily the ideas of all the illegal actions that could be taken to defeat society. Jurgis seems to put these thoughts on hold, however, when he gets out of jail and discovers his fears have come true. He lost his house and when he find hi family, Ona is dying while giving birth to their second child. Jurgis runs out to get a midwife he cannot afford, which I think shows how downhill their lives have gone in just a few years. They used to be able to afford a doctor, now they cannot afford a midwife. Hi wife’s eventual death is also symbolic. It seemed as if everything Jurgis dreamed of about his American experience had been destroyed, first his house, then his love. Now that Ona is gone, he goes to get drunk to escape his problems, as many other men of that time did. When he sobers up, he goes home and promises to look for a job. He finds one after a while and then an even better one is offered to him by a sympathetic woman who has met up with Jurgis’ son, to work in the steel mill. He starts looking forward to and planning his future when one day he gets home and finds out his son has died in a puddle. This obviously was a shock, but did not make me feel all that bad for Jurgis or his son. Maybe that is because I never really felt connected to either character.


In these chapters I seemed to relate to Jurgis the best because his views on society really “touched home.” He showed society as a corrupt part of life that never looked out for the good of all of the people, only those that “ran” the people. His misfortunes also showed how in that kind of society, if you start out low, it is almost impossible to succeed enough to rise above that level. This was shown through things from Jurgis’ imprisonment, to Ona’s death, and to his own son’s death.


Chapters -6


These chapters seemed to be a little more uplifting than the rest. Even though his family was gone, Jurgis seemed to find happiness, or at least peace, in the countryside where he ran away to. After hopping on the train, he was finally free to do what he pleased and move without being restricted to a crowded city. He also could use his money for what he wanted, which was usually liquor and women. So it surprised me when he got so upset when he saw a mother and child because it seemed that he had got past what had happened in his past. He ended up moving back to the city where he got a job digging tunnels. This job showed how corrupt the times were because his employer lied to him to get him to dig these tunnels. They said they were for telephones instead of subways to ruin their union. Of course, on the job, Jurgis gets hurt again and can no longer work. It saddened me to see that Jurgis had seemingly hit bottom and had to beg and even steal. Having stolen one hundred dollars, he tries to change it but the bartender only gives him change for one dollar so he attacks him and is put in jail again. This is unfair because he obviously can never rise out of his low position in life. While in jail, he meets Duane again and decides to join in his illegal way of life. Even though illegal, I think this is a good idea because it is the only way to get a fair chance at life. Now, surprisingly, Jurgis was part of the “system” he always had cursed. He worked for Mike Scully who ran Packingtown. Jurgis’ corrupt job is stealing with Duane or buying votes for Scully. It seems that people of that time got money any way they could, not caring whether they hurt others or not. This shows how corrupt their world was. Only the people contributing to the corruption would ever gain anything in life, unless something was done. The true herd workers never got rewarded and they often times got punished just because they weren’t part of the “system.”


Chapters 7-1


In the first part of these chapters, what shocked me was how just one common man’s speech changed Jurgis’ views and life so dramatically. When he found Marija in a brothel and found out how bad her life was, he goes out one night to just get away and goes to a meeting where he hopes to find a place to stay for a few hours. While there , he is inspired by the speaker, which even surprises himself. This speaker discussed something that even I found interesting. He said how all the working men had to gang up on the leaders of the system. If they did that, they would be stronger than anyone in the world. What surprised me most was how this was such a new idea to everyone. It never occurred to them that since there were so much more of their kind, they were stronger than any of the “leaders,” so they were very interested in the ideas behind socialism, as I was too. As Dr. Schliemann was describing his idea of socialism at a meeting, I found myself almost agreeing with everything he said and wondering why the world really could not be that way. He described things from having no competition for classes, to not having to do all of the boring or gross labor of their times, and even to the scientific advancements that would aid everyone, and these things seemed almost too logical. These speeches given across the country seemed to influence others in the same way. The statistics given show that in the next election, the socialist vote almost quadrupled, which shows how quickly the ideas were spreading. The ending to this story surprised me also. Throughout the book, Jurgis encountered one disaster after another, but then after one speech, his life was changed forever. Even his future looked promising. Of course this is a happy ending but it was not expected so it shocked me.


All in all, I would have to say I did not enjoy this book but Sinclair did get his task accomplished of using this novel as a propaganda for socialism because it even convinced me.





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